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Vril - Ufos manufactored on Mars, Moon, Nibiru and on Earth in Brazil, Neu Schwabenland, Antarctica, Area 51, and all over the world, in underground bases..553 viewswww.youtube.com/watch?v=UFOsmanufactoredonEarth

Some day, after we have mastered the winds, the waves, the tides and gravity, . . . we shall harness . . . the energies of love. Then, for the second time in the history of the world, man will have discovered fire.

TEILHARD DE CHARDIN
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2 Hanebus on the surface of the Moon. Photo NASA977 viewsAmazing UFO shot by the Italian Airforce: www.videogoogle.com/UFOAirForce


My own present opinion, based on two years of careful study, is that UFOs are probably extraterrestrial devices engaged in something that might very tentatively be termed 'surveillance'. ?Dr. James McDonald before Congress, 1968.

Congressional investigations ... are still being held on the
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Viktor Schauberger, Anti-gravity Technology und UFOs465 viewsChemtrails Baarn - the Netherlands, June 2nd, 2009: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5BQHe2ak4o

The International Space Station (ISS) March 17th, 2009 - Baarn, The Netherlands: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVC3ERtZxSk

CHEMTRAILS! BAARN - SOEST - AMERSFOORT, NEDERLAND - 22 APRIL 2009: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCjtu-wC1og

IN THE END OF DAYS - THE EXCELLENT DRUM OF GOLDEN LIGHT WILL SHINE! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7g_2M_J2d0c
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Adamski - UFOs: used with the permission of G.A.F. Intl - Copyright; George Adamski Foundation386 viewsUFOs of the elites part 3: www.nl.youtube.com/watch?v=2qEWXooOXJk&feature=PlayList&p=7848BCF9428EC739&index=5 (9:34)

The Kingdom of Heaven On Earth [is in us], by George Adamski in 1937: www.gafintl-adamski.com/html/heaven.htm

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sport disc470 viewsFalcon Lake UFO Part 2: www.youtube.com/watch?v=FalconLake

Texas UFO Part 2: www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NRnbF20ch8&NR=1
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foofighters UAV430 viewsYour World IS Changing (45/51): www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xZzMITXbTA&NR=1 (10:52)
Venus Rising on June 9, 2008 - The Final Countdown to the Next Sunspot Cycle Solar Maximum in 2012: www.youtube.com/watch?v=MVg0bkn5fsA
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foofighter438 viewsNimrod: www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimrod_(king)

Nimrod figures in some very early versions of the history of Freemasonry, where he was said to have been one of the fraternity's founders. According to the Encyclopedia of Freemasonry: The legend of the Craft in the Old Constitutions refers to Nimrod as one of the founders of Masonry. Thus in the York MS., No. 1, we read: "At ye making of ye toure of Babell there was a Masonrie first much esteemed of, and the King of Babilon yt called Nimrod was a Mason himself and loved well Masons." However, he does not figure in the current rituals.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/mas/bui/bui08.htm
the compiler tells us that during their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews learned the art and secrets of Masonry, which they took with them to the promised land. Long years are rapidly sketched, and we come to the days of David, who is said to have loved Masons well, and to have given them "wages nearly as they are now." There is but a meager reference to the building of the Temple of Solomon, to which is added: "In other chronicles and old books of Masonry, it is said that Solomon confirmed the charges that David had given to Masons; and that Solomon taught them their usages differing but slightly from the customs now in use." While allusion is made to the master-artist of the temple, his name is not mentioned, except in disguise. Not one of the Old Charges of the order ever makes use of his name, but always employs some device whereby to conceal it.
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foofighter431 viewsLisbon Treaty, CFR - FED and the special date September 11, 1991 NWO announcement George Bush Senior speeches: www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHXjjT-L1K4&feature=related (9:05)

Bertie Ahern meets the council of foreign relations, discussing the European Constitution (Lisbon Treaty). Includes footage of George Bush Snr and Jnr, Lou Dobbs, Alex Jones and others. To ratify this treaty would nullify the Irish constitution. Vote No
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foofighters 385 views
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foofighters 1945362 views
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foofighters 1945440 views
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foofighter382 viewsUAV - Unmanned Air vehicle(s)
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George Adamski UFOs316 viewsG.A.F. Int. Adamski Foundation: www.gafintl-adamski.com/

1891-1965)
First of the 1950s flying saucer contactees who claimed direct contact with beings who had traveled to Earth in space-ships from planets in outer space. Adamski was born in Poland on April 17, 1891. He was two years old when his family emigrated to Dunkirk, New York. In 1913 Adamski served with the 13th Cavalry on the Mexican border, received an honorable discharge from the army in 1919, then settled in Laguna Beach, California. He studied occult metaphysics and in 1936 founded the Royal Order of Tibet, through which he offered a course in self-mastery. Although he had no scientific training, he was often referred to as "Professor" by his Royal Order of Tibet mystical philosophy students. In 1940 he moved to the Valley Center with his followers, where they established a farming project. Four years later he moved to the southern slope of Mount Palomar in Southern California. He had no formal connection with the observatory there and worked as a handyman at a hamburger stand.

Soon after the modern flying saucer era began, Adamski emerged in 1947 as a popular lecturer. He claimed to have sighted a UFO in 1946 and in 1949 wrote a novel, Pioneers in Space, to promote discussion of the subject by the general public. He also began to show pictures of what he claimed were saucers he had seen near his home near Mount Palomar.

Adamski also coauthored, with Desmond Leslie,Flying Saucers Have Landed (1953), the book that launched the contactee phenomenon. Adamski claimed that he had been contacted by the Venusian occupant of a flying saucer that landed in the California desert November 20, 1952. Subsequently Adamski claimed to have had contact with spacemen from Mars and Saturn and to have traveled 50,000 miles into space in their craft. After Adamski's revelations, the convention of spaceman contacts, messages from outer space, and warnings about the welfare of the cosmos became firmly established. Adamski expanded upon his revelations in two subsequent volumes: Inside the Space Ships (1955) and Flying Saucers Farewell (1961).

By the late 1950s Adamski was an international celebrity who lectured to large audiences in North America and Europe. He also had his critics. In 1957 editor James Mosley devoted an issue of Saucer News to an expos? of Adamski. In 1963 Adamski's close associate C. A. Honey denounced him after discovering that Adamski had rewritten the original messages from the saucer beings in the Royal Order of Tibet materials. As his following had grown, Adamski had formed his followers into study groups and offered lessons in cosmic philosophy. In spite of the critics and defections, he retained a large following at the time of his death on April 23, 1965, from a heart attack, in Washington, D.C. His close associates founded the UFO Education Center in Valley Center, California, and the George Adamski Foundation, in Vista, California, to carry on his legacy.

Sources:

Adamski, George. Cosmic Philosophy. Freeman, S.D.: Pine Hill Press, 1961.

??. Flying Saucer Farewell. 1961. Reprint, Behind the Flying Saucer Mystery. New York: Paperback Library, 1967.

??. Inside the Space Ships. 1955. Reprint, Inside the Flying Saucers. New York: Paperback Library, 1967.

Barker, Gray. The Book of Adamski. Clarksburg, W. Va.: Saucerian Publications, 1965.

Leslie, Desmond, and George Adamski. Flying Saucers Have Landed. London: Werner Laurie, 1953. Rev. London: Neville Spearman, 1970.

Zinsstag & Timothy Good. George Adamski: The Untold Story. Beckenham, U.K.: Ceit Publications, 1983.


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Anti-gravity deep spaceship, Moon, Mars +Nibiru: Haunebu 3 , Mach 40421 viewsUFOs of the Elite's part 1: www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6JfB4bBgFE&mode=related&search= (9:34)
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Haunebu 3503 viewsUFO in China on 'Out There TV': www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEmjPxSWBEU (2:39)
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Nazi-Haunebu II-III435 viewsIII; 7000 (Aarde) tot 40.000 km/u (Mars)
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Haunebui III493 viewsHaunebu 1: 25 meter (4.800 km/u)
Haunebu 2: 32 meter (6.000 km/u)
Haunebu 3; 71 meter (7.000 km/u)
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from the Vimanika Shastra321 viewsNarayana also says:

The vimaana which naturally can travel on land, sea, and in the sky by alteration of its structure is called Tripura Vimaana.

It has got 3 parts. The first part can travel on land. The second part can travel under and over water. The 3rd part travels in the sky. By uniting the 3 parts by means of keelakas, the plane can be made to travel in the sky. The plane is divisible into 3 parts so that it might travel on land, sea, or air. The construction of the 1st part is now explained. Tripura vimaana should be made out of Trinetra metal only.
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343 views"Whether or not they are conspirators, whether they are conscious or not of the ultimate consequences of their actions, their powerful influence has helped move the world toward apocalyptic events". From: "Rule by Secrecy", Jim Marss
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Haunebu 455 viewsAnnilation of egoism and proud: "Peace can only come as a natural consequence of a universal enlightenment." Nicola Tesla - The Life and Times of a Forgotten Genius.
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Ignorance Exposed! - How and why we don't know...329 viewsThere are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns. That is to say, we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns, the ones we don't know. Donald Rumsfeld

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Haunebu III327 views
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Haunebui 3273 views
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Haunebu 1359 views
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Haunebu 3; Nibiru and the UFO Connection by Greg Jenner529 viewsAryans or the Anunnakies/Igigi, Vril-cosmic energy, Nibiru, underground UFO basis, and more by Greg Jenner: www.darkstar1.co.uk/gregjenner15.html
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Hanebu363 views
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Haunebu279 views
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Haunebu317 views
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G.A.F. International/Adamski Foundation. P.O. Box 1722 - Vista, CA 92085 - USA; Mothership256 viewswww.gafintl-adamski.com

*Permission granted to Marc van Druten from www.ufodewaarheid.com on October 14th 2007 to publish these photos on this site by G.A.F International/Adamsky Foundation.
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Vril258 views
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Vril232 views
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haunebu255 views
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Nazi-Ufo288 views
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Nazi-Ufo294 views
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Nazi-Ufo213 views
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Haunebu, foto: George Adamski373 viewswww.gafintl-adamski.com

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G.A.F. International/Adamski Foundation262 viewswww.gafintl-adamski.com



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Adamski UFOs258 views
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Adamski UFOs - G.A.F. International/Adamski Foundation - P.O. Box 1722 - Vista , CA 92085 - USA211 viewswww.gafintl-adamski.com

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RFZ Haunebui 1939305 views
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G.A.F. International/Adamsky Foundation. P.O. Box 1722 - Vista, CA 92085 - USA280 viewswww.gafintl-adamski.com

*permission granted by G.A.F. Intl on October 14th 2007 to Marc van Druten - website-owner of Ufodewaarheid.com.
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G.A.F. International/Adamsky Foundation. P.O. Box 1722 - Vista, CA 92085 - USA; SideScout305 viewswww.gafintl-adamski.com

*Permission granted by G.A.F. Intl who holds the Copyrights to www.ufodewaarheid.com for pubilcation on this website.
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sport model308 views
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sport model333 views
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Hanebu sign: +563 viewsthe sign for Earth and Nibiru (the 12th Planet, planet of the crossing) is + , thus also used for Earth as a landingmark.

There is the question why in 1947 ADMIRAL E. BYRD led an invasion of the ANTARCTIC, why he had 4,000 soldiers, a man-of-war, a fully equipped aircraft carrier and a functioning supply system at his command if it was a mere expedition? He had been given eight months for the exercise, but they had to stop after eight weeks and high losses of planes undisclosed even today. What had happened?


Later Admiral Byrd spoke to the press:


It is the bitter reality that in the case of a new war one had to expect attacks by planes that could fly from Pole to Pole.

Further he added that there was an advanced civilization down there that used their excellent technologies together with the SS.


Norbert-J?rgen Ratthofer writes about the whereabouts of the Haunebu developments in his book "Zeitmaschinen" (Time Machines):


The Haunebu I, II and III space gyros and the VRIL I space flying disk had disappeared after May 1945... It is very interesting to note in this context that after its nineteenth test flight, the German Haunebu III is said to have taken off on April 21, 1945, from Neuschwabenland, a vast, officially German territory in the Eastern Antarctic, for an expedition to Mars, about which there is nothing further known...





One year later, in 1946, the many sightings that suddenly occurred in Scandinavia of shining objects of unknown and definitely artificial origin caused a great stir among the Allies in East and West. Again one year later, in 1947, and well into the Fifties, a rising number of shining unknown flying objects, doubtlessly steered by intelligent beings, mostly round, disk- or bell-shaped, sometimes cigar-shaped, so-called UFOs appeared over North America.

The text goes on to say that as a rule these objects were unlike the German developments.

Good photographic material proves that the Haunebu II version especially had been sighted very often since 1945. If you have wrestled with what is available in the UFO world you will know that in a significantly high percentage of the cases where personal contacts with the people from the so-called UFOs was made, these were with especially beautiful Aryan types, blond and blue-eyed and that they either spoke fluent German or another language with a German accent.

It is further said that colour photographs taken by a night guard in West Germany in the Seventies exist of a landed and restarted flying disk that had both a knight's cross and a swastika on its hull.

See the
Nazi UFO Secrets
of
World War ll
Documentary







The flying machines just mentioned are well documented on photographs and films. There is the 60 minutes documentary "UFO - Secrets of the Third Reich". The American Vladimir Terziski gave a three-hour speech at the September 1991 UFO conference in Phoenix, Arizona, where he showed slides of German saucers, construction plans and subterranean German bases. Also of interest are the book by the Italian air force commander Renato Vesco and the book by Rudolf Lusar "Die deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaffen des Zweiten Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklung" (The German Arms and Secret Weapons of the Second World War and Their Development), J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, Munich 1971.


Do you see now why the subject of UFOs is treated as nonsense by the media, especially in Germany? Upon this German background it becomes evident that the news and media world controlled by the Illuminati through the Anglo-American Zionist lobby shirks no costs to keep the German citizens from research in this area.


The Question arises from where the Thule and Vril secret societies got their knowledge about the construction of these flying machines? Also their knowledge of gene technology in which area the Germans were also way ahead of other countries?


According to Herbert G. Dorsey and other researchers they had, besides the construction plans the Vril-Gesellschaft had received through telepathic contact with extra-terrestrials, a non-terrestrial saucer that had crashed in the Black Forest in 1936 and whose undamaged drive had proved a great help to the Germans. But there is practically no proof of that, and no living eye witnesses are known.

But these exist in America, and in large numbers. For around the same time the Americans recorded quite a number of crashes that could not be kept entirely secret.



Apart from the fact that I. G. Farben supported Hitler, their cartel partner "Standard Oil" (Rockefeller) fanned the flames against the Nazis. The "Ford Motor Company" for instance helped to build up the American army while at the same time producing in Germany military vehicles for the Nazis. Ford and Opel (subsidiary of General Motors that is controlled by J. P. Morgan) were the two largest producers of tanks in Hitler's Germany.

Whatever the outcome of the war, these multinational companies had already made their cuts. Many enterprises followed this principle during the Second World War.

Why is there nothing about all this in schoolbooks or encyclopaedias? Especially in Germany where the freedom of the press is apparently honoured and the truth is taught?

One of the reasons is that the Rockefeller Foundation spent US$ 139,000 in 1946 to present an official history of the Second World War which covered up the whole story of the U.S. bankers building up the Nazi regime as well as the occult and mystical background of the Nazis. One of the main sponsors was Rockefeller's own "Standard Oil Corp."





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TR-3B Astra - Triangle (Driehoek) Belgie Ufo-golf 1989-1991455 viewsZie Video "(Un)Solved Mysteries Belgium UFO/IFO-Wave" Nov. 1989-1991, Part 1:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoBL_Wpx7Fo (7:49)


In the Sanskrit Samarangana Sutradhara, it is written:

Strong and durable must the body of the Vihmana be made, like a great flying bird of light material. Inside one must put the mercury engine with its iron heating apparatus underneath. By means of the power latent in the mercury which sets the driving whirlwind in motion, a man sitting inside may travel a great distance in the sky. The movements of the Vimana are such that it can vertically ascend, vertically descend, move slanting forwards and backwards.With the help of the machines human beings can fly in the air and heavenly beings can come down to earth

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TR-3B Astra gulf547 viewsUFO Eupen 1989-1991 Belgium (en francais): www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIGXdv-Chjo&NR=1 (10:35)
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TR-3B; from (SR-71) Blackbird to Aurora and Tr-3B Astra (SR-75)585 viewsBritish UFO researchers discuss the mystery US Reconnaissance jet known as Aurora and speculate over its UFO-origin. Shown in 1993.

UFO Researchers Discuss Project Aurora: nl.youtube.com/watch?v=uItTA_q94zU&mode=related&search= (2:48)
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UFOs Belgie 1991: TR3-B Astra - Antigravity Triangle (Driehoek)374 viewsBelgium UFO wave 1989-1990 Part 2:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsQ6W9eduV8&mode=related&search=(8:38)

Governor speaks Phoenix Lights 1997 were real UFOs: www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJJ5jH9uIkM
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Vril 7260 views
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Vril 8 , 1945, gravitational electromotor, speeds a 7000 (on Earth) tot 40.000 km/u (in hyper space to Mars) en meer...295 viewsAccording the Vaimanika Shastra (written in 400 BC by Maharshi Bharadwaj), found in a temple in India in 1875 to some sources, Vimanas said to take off vertically or dirigible. Bharadwaj, the Wise, refers to no less than 70 authorities and 10 experts of air travel in antiquity. These sources are now lost...
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Vril 1 - 1934239 viewswww.asiafinest.com/forum/lofiversion/index.php/t27067.html

The seven greatest capital cities of Rama were known in classical Hindu texts as The Seven Rishi Cities According to ancient Indian texts, the people had flying machines which were called "Vimanas." The ancient Indian epic describes a Vimana as a double deck, circular aircraft with portholes and a dome, much as we would imagine a flying saucer. It flew with the "speed of the wind" and gave forth a "melodious sound." There were at least four different types of Vimanas; some saucer shaped, others like long cylinders ("cigar shaped airships").

The ancient Indian texts on Vimanas are so numerous, it would take volumes to relate what they had to say. The ancient Indians, who manufactured these ships themselves, wrote entire flight manuals on the control of the various types of Vimanas, many of which are still in existence, and some have even been translated into English. The Samaraanganasutraadhaara is a scientific treatise dealing with every possible angle of air travel in a Vimana.

There are 230 stanzas dealing with the construction, take-off, cruising for thousand of miles, normal and forced landings, and even possible collisions with birds. In 1875, the Vaimanika Sastra, a fourth century B.C. text written by Bharadwaj the Wise, using even older texts as his source, was rediscovered in a temple in India. It dealt with the operation of Vimanas and included information on the steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning and how to switch the drive to "solar energy" from a free energy source which sounds like "anti-gravity."

The Vaimanika Sastra (or Vymaanika-Shaastra) has eight chapters with diagrams, describing three types of aircraft, including apparatuses that could neither catch on fire nor break. It also mentions 31 essential parts of these vehicles and 16 materials from which they are constructed, which absorb light and heat; for which reason they were considered suitable for the construction of Vimanas. This document has been translated into English and is available by writing the publisher
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Vril 1 image268 viewsRead more on UFOs from ancient India: www.hinduwisdom.info/Vimanas.htm

Of special concern among these were the military planes whose functions were delineated in some very considerable detail and which read today like something clean out of science fiction. For instance, they had to be:

Impregnable, unbreakable, non-combustible and indestructible capable of coming to a dead stop in the twinkling of an eye; invisible to enemies; capable of listening to the conversations and sounds in hostile planes; technically proficient to see and record things, persons, incidents and situations going on inside enemy planes; know at every stage the direction of the movement of other aircraft in the vicinity; capable of rendering the enemy crew into a state of suspended animation, intellectual torpor or complete loss of consciousness; capable of destruction; manned by pilots and co-travelers who could adapt in accordance with the climate in which they moved; temperature regulated inside; constructed of very light and heat absorbing metals; provided with mechanisms that could enlarge or reduce images and enhance or diminish sounds.

Notwithstanding the fact that such contraption would resemble a cross between an American state-of-the-art Stealth Fighter and a flying saucer, does it mean that air and space travel was well known to ancient Indians and aeroplanes flourished in India when the rest of the world was just learning the rudiments of agriculture? Aerial battles and chases are common in ancient Hindu literature.

What did these airships look like? The ancient Mahabharata speaks of a vimana as ?an aerial chariot with the sides of iron and clad with wings.? The Ramayana describes a vimana as a double-deck, circular (cylindrical) aircraft with portholes and a dome. It flew with the ? speed of the wind?, and gave forth a ?melodious sound?

The ancient Indians themselves wrote entire flight manuals on the care and control of various types of vimanas. The Samara Sutradhara is a scientific treatises dealing with every possible facet of air travel in a vimana. There are 230 stanzas dealing with construction, take-off, cruising for thousands of miles, normal and forced landings, and even possible collusions with birds!

Would these texts exist (they do) without there being something to actually write about? Traditional historians and archaeologists simply ignore such writings as the imaginative ramblings of a bunch of stoned, ancient writers.

Says Andrew Tomas, " The Samara Sutradhara, which is a factual type of record, treats air travel from every angle?If this is the science fiction of antiquity, then it is the best that has ever been written.?

In 1875, the Vaimanika Shastra, a fourth century BC text written by Maharshi Bhardwaj, was discovered in a temple in India. The book dealt with the operation of ancient vimanas and included information on steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning, and how to switch the drive to solar energy, or some other ?free energy? source, possibly some sort of ?gravity drive.? Vimanas were said to take off vertically or dirigible. Bharadwaj the Wise refers to no less than 70 authorities and 10 experts of air travel in antiquity. These sources are now lost.


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Vril 1 262 viewsVimanika Shastra translated in English by G.R. Josyer: www.sacred-texts.com/ufo/vs/index.htm

If you are looking for an ancient manuscript on this fascinating topic, you'll need to keep on looking. The Vymanika Shastra was first committed to writing between 1918 and 1923, and nobody is claiming that it came from some mysterious antique manuscript. The fact is, there are no manuscripts of this text prior to 1918, and nobody is claiming that there are. So on one level, this is not a hoax. You just have to buy into the assumption that 'channeling' works.

The Vymanika Shastra, however, is not a myth. In recent years, I had seen the English text reproduced in Vimana Aircraft of Ancient India & Atlantis (ISBN 0932813127), published by Adventures Unlimited, which I highly recommend for the fascinating background material on vimanas. However, that edition waffles a bit as to when the VS was actually first published. It also omits the first half of the book, consisting of over a hundred pages of Sanskrit, which, in my mind at least, is the most notable part of the book. And the original edition is almost unobtainable. Now I was face to face with an offer to purchase a first edition, at $160. That is probably on the low side; probably because the book looks so terrible, but (as will become clear below) that is probably the case with any copy of the 1973 edition. So I didn't hesitate.

The story of this book is as follows: sometime in the period just before World War I, a Brahman named Pandit Subbaraya Sastry began to dictate previously unknown texts in Sanskrit which purported to contain ancient Indian technological knowledge. He in turn, credited a Vedic sage named Maharshi Bharadwaja, as well as other Rishis who appear in legitimate Hindu texts.

One of these 'channeled' texts was, on its face, a technical manual for the construction and use of 'vimanas,' the flying machines of the Vedic sagas. It is unclear as to whether any part of the present work was actually published in print at that time, even though it is implied in the introduction, so it is unclear whether it was published (in the legal sense) prior to 1923. The Sanskrit manuscript of the VS lay unpublished for over fifty years. In 1973, this text was published in a very limited edition by G.R. Josyer, along with a translation which he had produced over a twenty year period. In 1991, the English portion and the illustrations from the Josyer book were reprinted in the above-mentioned Vimana Aircraft of Ancient India & Atlantis.

It as if someone in the early 20th century wrote a 100 page book on ancient aircraft in Biblical Hebrew and attributed it to Moses and other prophets. However, the fact that the book was originally written in Sanskrit, while very impressive, isn't any indication of authenticity. Sanskrit is to some extent still a living language, used everyday in Hindu ritual. It is plausible that a well-educated high-caste Hindu from that period would be able to compose a Sanskrit text of this length given enough time.
SIXTH CHAPTER
Atha Jaatyadhikaranam: Varieties of Vimaanas.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ Jaati tryvidhyam Yugabhedaad Vimaanaanaam. Sootra 1.

"Three types according to changing Yugas."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

According to the differences in yugas, there are three different types of planes:

Having dealt with the constituent mechanical parts of the Vimaana, we shall now deal with the Vimaanas according to their different classes.

The sootra indicates that there are different types of planes, and that they are of 3 types.

In the Krita Yuga, Dharma or Righteousness was four-footed, that is, it was four-square, fully established, all paramount, and it was adhered to implicitly by men. The men were inherently noble-born and were possessed of remarkable powers. Without needing to go through yogic discipline to attain special powers, or practise mantras which secured extraordinary results, the men of that yuga, merely by their devotion to dharma, became Siddhapurushaas or gifted with superhuman powers. They were virtuous men and men of learning and wisdom. Going in the sky with the speed of wind by their own volition was natural to them. The eight super-sensory, and now superhuman, attainments, known as animaa, mahimaa, garimaa, laghimaa, praaptih, praakaamya, eeshatwa, and vashitwa, were all possessed by them. That is, animaa is assumption of infinitesimal shape; mahimaa is growing into gigantic shape; garimaa is becoming astonishingly heavy; laghimaa is becoming weightless; praaptih is securing any desired thing; praakaamyam is becoming rid of desires; eeshatwa is attaining paramountcy; and vashitwa is becoming extremely pliant.

* * * *

I. Krita yuga--1728000 years.
II. Threthaa yuga--1296000 years.

III. Dwaapara yuga--864000 years.
Kaliyuga--432000 years.


p. 85

Therefore in Krita Yuga, or first epoch, the ancients say, there were none of the three classes of Vimaanas.

Krita Yuga passed; and Tretaa Yuga commenced. Dharma then became limp of one foot. It served with 3 feet only, and grew gradually less efficient. So men's minds became dense, and the conception of Vedic truths, and anima and other super-sensory powers, became scarcer. Therefore, by the corrosion of Dharma or righteousness, men lost the power of flying in the sky with the speed of wind.

Perceiving this, God Mahadeva, desiring to confer the power of understanding the Vedas properly on the Dwijas, or brahmins, kshatriyas, and vysyas, graciously descended on earth in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, and through the instrumentality of Sanaka and other anointed sages, classified the Veda mantras, and then bestowing his benedictory glance on the worshipping Munis or ascetics, he blessed them with the gift of Vedic perception. And then to ensure that they were properly receptive, he embraced them and entered their hearts and illuminated their memories. The munis, overwhelmed by the Divine grace, aglow with horripilation, with voice choked with emotion, praised the Supreme with shata-rudreeya and other hymns, and manifested profound devotion.

Pleased with their receptiveness, divine Dakshinaamurthy, favouring them with a benign glance, and with smile on his face, said to them, "Till now you have been known as "Munis" or ascetics. Henceforth, having by my grace attained insight into the Vedas, you shall be known as "Rishis" or seers. You will cultivate the Vedic mantras, and practising celibacy, you will adore the divine Goddess of the Vedas, and winning her favour, and approaching the Great God Easwara by Yogic Samadhi, ascertain His mind, and by His and my grace, rising to the pinnacle of intellectual vision, become adepts in the meaning and purport of the Vedas; and confirming by them your own experiences and meditative introspection, you will create the Dharmashaastras or moral codes, Puranas and Itihaasas, and physical and material sciences, in conformity to the truths of the Vedas, for the benefit of mankind. And for travelling in the sky, propagate the art of manufacturing Vimaanas, and for attaining wind-speed, evolve Ghutica and Paadukaa methods through Kalpashaastras or scientific treatises."

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Then those munis or seers, enshrining in their hearts God Mahadeva in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, produced the Dharmashaastras or ethical codes, epics, chronicles, manuals on rituals, treatises on the arts and sciences, ritualistic and sacrificial codes, in conformity to the Vedas, and propagated them among men. Amongst them it is said that there are six treatises bearing on the manufacture of Vimaanas produced by the ancient seers. In them are described three classes of vimaanas, known as maantrikaas, taantrikaas, and kritakaas, capable of flying everywhere.

It is said in Vimaana Chandrika,

"I shall indicate the different kinds of vimaanas. In Tretaa yuga as men were adepts in mantras or potent hymns, the vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwaapara yuga as men had developed considerable tantric knowledge, vimaanas were manufactured by means of tantric knowledge. As, both mantra and tantra are deficient in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are known as kritaka or artificial. Thus, owing to changes in dharma during the yugas, the ancient seers have classified the vimaanas of the 3 yugas as of 3 different types."

"Vyomayaana Tantra" also says,

"By the influence of mantras in Tretaa, vimaanas are of maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of tantras in Dwaapara, the vimaanas are of taantrika type. Owing to decadence of both mantra and tantra in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are of artificial type." Thus 3 classes of vimaanas are mentioned in shaastras by ancient seers.

In "Yantra Kalpa" also,

"Vimaanas are classified into mantra and other varieties by experts according to differences in yugas. They are defined as maantrika, taantrika, and kritaka."

The same is expressed in "Kheta yaana pradeepika," and also "Vyoma Yaana Arkaprakaashikaa."

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Thus according to shaastras vimaanas are divided into 3 classes, on the basis of differences in the modes of their manufacture.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Pancha-vimshan Maantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena" Sootra 2.

"Maantrika Vimaanas are of Pushpaka and other 25 Varieties."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In the previous sootra vimaanas were specified as of 3 types owing to differences in the 3 yugas. In this sootra maantrika vimaanas or vimaanas flying by maantrik power are said to be 25.

Shounaka Sootra says,

Maantrika vimaanas in Tretaayuga are 25. Their names are pushpaka, ajamukha, bhraajasvat, jyotirmukha, kowshika, bheeshma, shesha, vajraanga, dyvata, ujvala, kolaahala, archisha, bhooshnu, somaanka, panchavarna, shanmukha, panchabaana, mayoora, shankara, tripura, vasuhaara, panchaanana, ambareesha, trinetra and bherunda.

In Maanibhadrakaarikaa,

The vimaanas of Tretaayuga are 32 of the maantrika type. Their names as given by Maharshi Gowtama are Pushpaka, ajamukha, bhraaja, swayamjyoti, kowshika, bheeshmaka, shesha, vajraanga, dyvata, ujvala, kolaahala, archisha, bhooshnu, somaanka, varnapanchaka, shanmukha, panchabaana, mayoora, shankara priya, tripura, vasuhaara, panchaanana, ambareesha, trinetra, and bherunda, etc.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Bhyravaadi Bhedaat Tantrikaa-shshat-panchaashat." Sootra 3.

"Taantrika Vimaanas are of Bhyrava and other 56 varieties."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In previous sootra the names of maantrika vimaanas were mentioned: In this sootra the names of taantrika vimaanas of Dwaapara yuga are mentioned.

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In shape, movement and speed there is no difference between maantrika and taantrika vimaanas. There is however one difference in taantrika vimaanas, that is, the way in which the shakti or power at the junction of sky and earth is incorporated.

Lalla also says,

There is only one difference between taantrika vimaanas and maantrika vimaanas: the adaptation of the power of sky and earth. In shape, and movement. variations, they are identical. The taantrika vimaanas are of 56 varieties.

In Shounaka Sootra,

In Dwaapara taantrika vimaanas are 56. Their names are, bhyrava, nandaka, vatuka, virinchi, vynateya, bherunda, makaradwaja, shringaataka, ambareesha, sheshaasya, saimtuka, maatrika, bhraaja, paingala, tittibha, pramatha, bhoorshni, champaka, drownika, rukmapunkha, bhraamani, kakubha, kaalabhyrava, jambuka, garudaasya, gajaasya, vasudeva, shoorasena, veerabaahu, bhusunda, gandaka, shukatunda, kumuda, krownchika, ajagara, panchadala, chumbuka, dundubhi, ambaraasya, maayooraka, bheerunalika, kaamapaala, gandarksha, paariyaatra, shakunta, ravimandana, vyaaghra, mukha, vishnuratha, sowarnika, mruda, dambholi, brihathkunja, mahaanata, etc.

In Maanibhadrakaarikaa:--

In Dwaapara yuga taantrika vimaanas are said to be 56. Their names according to sage Gowtama, are bhyrava, nandaka, vatuka, virinchika, tumbara, vynateya, bherunda, makaradhwaja, shringaataka, ambareesha, sheshaasya, symhika, maatruka, bhraajaka, pyngala, tittibha, pramatha, bhoorshnika, champaka, drownika, rukmapunkha, bhraamanika, kakubha, kaalabhyirava, jambuka, gireesha, garudaasya, gajaasya, vasudeva, shoorasena, veerabaahu, bhusundaka, gandaka, shukatunda, kumuda, krownchika, ajagara, panchadala, chumbaka, dundubhi, ambaraasya, mayoora, bheeru, nalikaa, kaamapaala, gandarksha, paariyaatra, shakuntaka, ravimandana, vyaaghramukha, vishnu ratha, souvarnika, mruda, dambholee, bruhatkunja, mahaanata.

These 56 are taantrika vimaanas of Dwaaparayuga.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Shakunaadyaah Panchavimshat Kritakaah." Sootra 4.

"Shakuna and other 25 types of Vimaanas are Kritakaah."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In shape and movements there is no difference in the vimaanas, except in the matter of the use of mantraas and tantraas. The kritaka or artificial vimaanas are of 25 varieties.

According to Shownaka sootra

"Tishyay kritaka bhedaah panchavigamshatih! teshaam naamaanyanukramishyaamah: shakuna sundararukma mandala vakratunda bhadraka ruchaka vyraaja bhaaskara gajaavarta powshkala virinchi nandaka kumuda mandara hamsa shukaasya somaka krownchaka padmaka symhika panchabaana owryaayana pushkara kodandaa iti."

Says "Maanibhadra Kaarikaa":

In Kaliyuga, the kritaka or artificial vimaanas are said to be 25. Their names are given below as indicated by sage Gowtama: shakuna, sundara, rukmaka, mandala, vakratunda, bhadraka, ruchaka, viraajaka, bhaaskara, gajaavarta, powshkala, viranchika, nandaka, kumuda, mandara, hamsa, shukaasya, sowmyaka, krownchaka, padmaka, symhika, panchabaana, owryaayana, pushkara, and kodanda.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Raaja-lohaadeteshaam Aakaara Rachanaa." Sootra 5.

"These should be built out of Raajaloha."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

These 25 kinds of vimaanas are to be made of Raajaloha metal only.

Says Kriyaasaara,

In manufacturing artificial aeroplanes the best of metals are those known as Ooshmapaa or heat-imbibing or heat resisting metals. Out of them the variety known as Raajaloha or king of metals is most suited to Shakuna and other vimaanas.

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Three kinds of metals, soma, soundaala, and maardweeka, in the proportion of 3, 8, and 2, adding borax, to be filled in crucible or smelter, and placed in furnace, and heated to 272 degrees, and melted thoroughly, and churned, will result in the alloy Raajaloha.

Vishwambhara also says,

"In the science of metals, for the manufacture of aeroplanes, 16 types of Ooshmapaa or heat-sucking lohas or metals are the very best. The fourth in that series, is called Raajaloha. Out of that alone should shakuna vimaana be constructed."

The parts of shakuna vimaana are:

Peetha or floor board; hollow mast; three wheeled keelakas with holes; 4 heaters, air-suction pipes, water jacket, oil tank, air heater, chhullee or heater, steam boiler, vidyud-yantra or electric generator, air propelling yantra, vaatapaa yantra or air-suction pipe, dikpradarsha dhwaja or direction indicating banner, shakuna yantra, two wings, tail portion for helping vimaana to rise, owshmyaka yantra or engine, kiranaakarshana math or sun-ray attracting bead. These 28 are parts of Shakuna vimaana.

The construction of the vimaana:

The floor-board or base should be made of levelled Rajaloha sheet, shaped quadrangular, circular, or cradle shaped. The weight of the peetha should be one-hundredth of that of the plane, and its width should be half the height of the vimaana. In the centre of the peetha the hollow mast should be fixed with screw joints.

Lalla defines the mast in "Yantra kalpataru". The stambha or mast should be made of haatakaasya metal and not otherwise.

Haatakaasya metal is described in "Lohatantra": 8 parts of suvarchala or natron, 16 parts of laghu-kshwinka or light zinc, 18 parts of lagbu bambhaari, and 100 parts of copper, filled in smelter, placed in koorma vyaasatika furnace, and with the aid of mahormi bellows boiled to 307 degrees, will yield haatakaasya metal.

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The Peetha

The height of the peetha should be 80 feet. It should be 56 feet in length and breadth, 70 feet high on the north and south sides. The tip should be three-cornered. This is for shakuna vimaana.

Naalastambha or Hollow Mast:

At the bottom the mast should be of 35 feet diameter outside, and 30 feet inside. At the middle the mast should be of 25 feet diameter outside and 20 feet inside. Higher up it should be of 20 feet diameter outside and 15 feet diameter inside; The height of the mast should be 80 feet. It should be made of Raajaloha. In order to fix the mast in the peetha screw joint should be made. And in order to adjust the air-speed as required, 6 wheels should be inserted inside the mast.

The Wheels:

Inside the mast at the height of 4 feet above the peetha, three wheels should be provided, of 15? feet diameter, with holes. The wheels above and below should be fixed with bolts, and unmoving. In order to revolve the middle wheel keys should be fixed outside on the mast, As there are holes in the wheels, as two wheels do not move, and as the middle wheel revolves in a group with the other two wheels, movement of air is, allowed or stopped by the turning of the key outside.

Similarly at the height of 44 feet above the peetha three wheels corresponding to those below should be fixed and operated similarly.

Window dome:

The window dome should be of 15? feet outside circumference. Its inside should be five feet wide and it should be 2 feet high. It should be fixed on the top of the mast.

Sun-crystal:

A sun crystal 7 feet round, and 2 feet wide and 2 feet in height should be fixed so as to crown the window dome.

10 feet above the bottom peetha, on a floor-board 3 inches thick, three floors or tiers should be built, each 14 feet high, with 3 inch

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floor-boards, the upper two floors being supported by pillars fixed at 10 feet intervals with screw joints and strong bolts. In the four corners 4 heating yantras should be fixed, 10 feet in circumference and 8 feet high. On the ground floor along the supporting pillars accommodation for passengers should be provided in the form of individual boxes.

On the second floor booths should be constructed to accommodate the anga-yantras, or the various mechanisms recommended for the safety of the vimaana. It should be 60 feet wide and 14 feet high with 3 inch thick ceiling board.

The third floor should be 40 feet wide and 14 feet high.

The partitioning boxes for passengers as well as the booths of the various machines should be divided off by railings starting from the hollow mast to the side walls in all the four directions.

Beneath the ground-floor board a 7 feet high cellar should be constructed. In it the several necessary yantras should be located. In the centre is the foot of the hollow mast. On the four directions from it 4 air pumping machines should be fixed. In order to stimulate them 4 steam engines also should be installed. On the two sides of the vimaana two air expelling machines, and an air heater machine, and 2 machines to keep the heater supplied with air from outside, should be erected.

In order to enable the wings on either side to spread and flap, proper hinges and keys should be provided for, safely fixing them to the sides of the vimaana, and for enabling them to fold and open easily.

The revolving tractor blades in the front should be duly fixed to the heating engine with rods so that they could dispel the wind in front and facilitate the passage of the vimaana.

The wings are two, one on each side, very strongly fixed to the vimaana with bolts and hinges. Each wing should be fixed in a 11 foot scabbard up to 20 feet length, where it would be 10 feet wide, widening further up to 40 feet at the end of its 60 feet length, besides its. first 20 feet of scabbard length.

The tail should be 20 feet long, and 3? feet wide at the start, and 20 feet wide at the end.

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The air-blower and heater:

The length of the air-blower should be 15 feet, and width 3 feet. The naalaas or pipes should be 3 feet wide, and their outer circumference should be 4 feet. The rods and hinges and other equipment should be suitably prepared.

The vaatapaa yantra or air blower should be 12 feet long and 9? feet wide. Inside it should be covered with circling wires. A pipe should be fixed inside, for air flow. By the hot oil fumes from the heated tank, the air becomes heated and should be passed into the owshmya yantra or heater, while the cold air from outside should also be let in. Tubes and fixings should be provided in the yantra. In order to emit the fumes of the oil flames to the outside, a 6 inches pipe should be fixed from the yantra to the foot of the mast. Air blowers should be installed with 10 feet wheels to pump in fresh cold air from outside.

To the east of the air machine should be placed a light burner in order to aid combustion of the oil. An electric generator provided with switches should light the burner. When the light is off the oil should be kept duly sealed. A rope should be tied to the tail joint, for the pilot to manipulate the fluttering of the tail to help the ascent or descent of the vimaana. Similarly ropes should be tied to the hinges of the two wings, and passed to the pilot like reins, so that he might spread them out or close them as needed.

Ten feet beneath the passenger floor of the vimaana, to a height of 2? feet from the bottom plate there should be a cellar-like enclosure. The bottom of the vaatanaala mast should be fixed in its centre with firm screw joints. In this cellar should be located two oil tanks 15 feet by 9? feet by 4 feet, with water jackets.

Four bellows of 15 feet by 2? feet by 6? feet, should be provided for storing the air pumped in by the air-blowers, and letting it out as required.

And underneath, on all the four sides wheels of 7 feet circumference should be fixed for the movement of the vimaana on the ground.

This vimaana is named SHAKUNA VIMAANA.

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SUNDARA VIMAANA
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Sundarothha." Sootra 6.

"Next Sundara."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Next Sundara vimaana will be described. It has got 8 constituent parts.

First peetha or ground plate, smoke chimney, 5 gas-engines, bhujya metal pipe, wind blower, electricity generator, and four-faced heater, and vimaana nirnaya, or outer cover.

The Peetha or ground plate:

It should be made of Raajaloha metal only. It should be square or round, and of 100 feet in circumference, or any other desired size. It should be 8 feet thick. Seven times the peetha has to be heated with manchuka or madder root oil. Then spots should be marked in it at 10 feet distance from each other, totalling 24. The size of each kendra or centre is 15 feet. In the centre a dhooma-prasaarana or fume distributing naala or pipe 12 feet high should be erected.

Naalastambha, hollow mast:

The naalastambha should be 56 feet high, and 4 feet in diametre. For storing gas, at its base, a 8 feet long, circular, and 4 feet high vessel should be provided. A six feet size water vessel should be arranged. A 4 feet size oil tank should be fixed at its centre. At its foot an electric storing crystal of 1 foot size should be fixed with necessary hinges and keys.

The vessel should be filled with 12 parts of dhoomanjana oil, and 20 parts of shukatundika or bignonia Indica? (egg-plant?) oil, and 9 parts of kulakee or red-arsenic oil. To conduct electricity, two wires should be passed through the pipe and fixed to the crystal. In the middle of the naalastambha or mast, for the smoke fumes to be restrained or speeded out, triple wheels with holes should be fixed. In order to work the wheels from outside, two right turning and left turning wheels

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should be attached outside the pole, and connected to the wheels inside. Three wires should be drawn inside the naala and fixed at the foot, the middle, and at the top.

Dhoomodgama Yantra:

Because it ejects smoke fumes with speed it is called Dhoomodgama yantra.

Hima samvardhaka, soma, and sundaala, in the proportion of 32, 25, and 38, should be filled in pipe crucible, placed in chakra-mukha furnace, and with the help of ajaamukha bellows heated to 712 degrees and properly churned. It will yield excellent dhooma-garbha alloy. With that alloy the dhoomodgama yantra should be constructed.

Underneath the centre of the 15 feet long peetha, for the control of the gas fumes a 10 feet high pipe with right revolving wheel should be fixed. On its 2 sides, to south and north, 2 water steam pipes should be erected. At the foot of the 2 pipes 4 feet long 3 feet high pots should be formed for containing the fumes. Two pipes shaped like goblets, 1 foot by 8 feet by 3 feet, should be fixed at the top of the fume container. A water vessel at its foot, and an oil-vessel at its centre, and in front of it the switches of the electric ray crystals, as in the dhooma prasaarana naala stambha.

On either side of the heat tube, two water jackets should be placed. A pipe with wires should be taken from the electric generator and connected to the hinges of the crystals. Electric current of 80 linkas should be passed to the crystals, whose motion will cause friction and generate heat of 100 degrees (kakshyas). Thereby the oil in the vessel will get heated and boil and emit fumes.

The electric power should then be passed through the smoke pipe between the two water jackets. By this the water will be converted into hot steam. The oil fumes should be filled in the oil fume pipe and the steam in the steam pipe. Then by operating the switches, both the fumes will fly up at 500 degree temperature. The switches should restrain the fumes or pump them out as needed. 40 such yantras should be prepared and should be fixed on the peetha in groups on

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the four sides. Then connected with the bases of the dhooma-naalas, sundaalas or elephant trunks, one foot wide and 12 feet high should be erected on the four sides, to enable the vimaana to fly with speed.

Sundaala is described by Lallachaarya:

The sundaala should be installed. for using the oil fumes and steam fumes for the motion of the vimaana. There are. varieties of ksheera vrikshaas or milk-trees according to shaastraas. Vata or banyans, manjoosha or madder root, maatanga or citron?, panchashaakhee (five branched), shikhaavalee (crested), taamra sheershnee (copper-crested), brihatkumbhee (big bellied), mahishee, ksheeravallaree, shona parnee (crimson-leaved), vajramukhee, and ksheerinee (milky). From these the ooze or milk should be collected, and in the proportion of 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 8, 7, 4, 7, 30, 12, filled in a vessel. Then granthi metal, naaga or lead, vajra, bambhaarika, vynateya, kanduru, kudapa, and kundalotpala, these in equal parts should be filled in the vessel in equal proportion to the milk contents, and boiled with 92 degree heat. Then the molten liquid should be filled in the milk-cloth machine, and churned. When cooled and put through the levelling machine, it will yield a strong, soft, cool, heat proof, and uncuttable ash-coloured cloth sheet.

This cloth should be boiled in rouhinee taila or oil of black hellebore for 3 yaamaas or 9 hours, and then washed with water. Then it should be boiled in atasee or linseed oil as before. Then it should be kept in ajaa-mootra or goat's urine for one day and kept in the sun. Then it should be dried and painted with kanakaanjana paint and dried, Then the cloth will glow with a golden hue. With this cloth should be made the shundaala or elephant trunk, 12 feet high, 1 foot round, and with pipe-like opening inside.

Two mechanisms for rolling it and unrolling it should be properly attached to it. By the rolling switch the shundaala will coil round like a snake and remain on the floor. By the unrolling switch it will uncoil and stand erect like a raised arm. From the fume generating yantra connecting links to the shundaala should be provided for the fumes to pass through it to the outside air. And to attract outside air into the sundaala a pump-like arrangement should be provided as in an inflator.

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Three switches should be provided as in the water tapping yantra. By revolution of its wheel the fumes will go out through the shundaala and 82 linka of fresh air will come in. The direction in which the fumes will emerge from the shundaala will be the direction of the course of the vimaana. The 3 wheels in the shundaala will cause the vimaana to wheel around or make ascent, or to drop height.

At the foot of each dhoomodgama yantra 2 shundaalas should be duly fixed. And on the 4 sides of the dhoomaprasaarana-naala-stambha 4 shundaalas should be erected.

In order to protect against the intense heat from fire and sun inside and outside the vimaana, it should be provided a covering made of the 6th type of Ooshmapaa loha or heat-proof metal. At the top and bottom and on the sides keys should be provided for the movement of the fumes. 40 such dhoomodgama yantras should be properly fixed in the selected spots of the peetha with screw fittings. The vimaana will be enabled to fly smoothly by so doing.

ELECTRIC DYNAMO
Says Yantra Sarvasva:

There are 32 kinds of yantras for generating electricity, such as by friction, by heating, by waterfall, by combination, by solar rays, etc. Out of these, saamyojaka or production by combination is the one most suitable for vimaanas. Its manufacture is explained by Sage Agastya in Shaktitantra:

The peetha or foot-plate should be made of saamyojaka metal, 35 feet in diametre. 5 spots should be marked in it in a circle, 5 feet in diametre, with a spot in the centre. Vessels should be prepared for each kendra, 4 feet wide, 2 feet high, shaped like a pot. On each a cylindrical pipe 1 foot wide and 1 foot high, should be fixed. The top of the cylinder should be 4 feet wide and round.

Then get a Jyotirmukha or flame-faced lion's skin, duly cleaned, add salt, and placing in the vessel containing spike-grass acid, boil for 5 yaamas or 15 hours. Then wash it with cold water. Then take

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oils from the seeds of jyothirmukhee, or staff-tree, momordica charantia, and pot herb, in the proportion of 3, 7, and 16, and mix them in a vessel, add 1/64 part of salt. The skin should be immersed in this oil and kept for 24 days in solar heat. It will get a scarlet sheen. The skin should be cut to the size of the top opening of the vessel cylinder, with 5 openings in it. Cover the cylinder with the skin with bolts. All the 5 vessels should be similarly covered, and placed in the 5 selected centres on the peetha. Then 16 drona measures of asses' urine, 16 linka measures of mined charcoal, 3 linkas of salt, 2 linkas of snake-poison, and 2 linkas of copper, should be filled in the vessel on the eastern side.

Then in the vessel on the western side, 7 vidyudgama mani or load-stone, 13 praana-kshaara or ammonium chloride, 22 hare-dung, should be filled. and made into a decoction. Two parts of camel urine should be mixed with one part of the above. Then 50 linkas of rhinoceros bones, 30 linkas of sulphur, and 16 linkas of tamarind tree salt, and 28 linkas of steel should be added to that. And 117 tatin-mitra manis should be placed in the centre of the vessel.

Next the following materials should be filled in the northern vessel:

Eleven parts of oil of apaamaarga or achyranthus aspera seeds, 32 parts of oil seeds of sarpaasya or mesua ferrea, 40 parts of ayaskaantha or oil of steel, in 83 parts of elephant's urine, all these to be put in the northern vessel and mixed together properly. Then add mercury, symhika salt, and paarvanika or bamboo rice, 30, 20, and 25 palas respectively, or 120, 80, and 100 tolas. Sun-crystal of the 800th type, mentioned in Maniprakarana, cleaned in oil, should be put in the vessel.

Next in the vessel on the southern side, put in grandhika draavaka or long-pepper decoction, panchamukhee draavaka, and shveta-punja or white liquorice decoctions, in proportion of 12, 21, and 16, and mix together, add cows' urine 5 parts more than the above liquids, 47 parts of jyotirmayookha root, 28 linkas of kaanta metal, 28th and 10th kind of kudupa 32 parts. 92 jyotirmanis purified in milk should be placed in it, according to Chaakraayani. This is the southern vessel.

Then in the central vessel electric current should be stored. That vessel should be made of chapala-graahaka metal only.

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Chapala-graahaka metal is explained in Lohatantra:

Quick-lime, marble stone, lac, sowraashtra earth, glass, root of the elephant trunk tree, bark of karkata tree, cowries, cubeb pepper gum, in the proportion of 8, 11, 7, 27, 8, 5, 3, 7, and 12 parts of tankana or borax, to be filled in urana crucible, placed in kundodara furnace, and with 3 faced bellows, boiled to 427 degrees, will yield, when poured into the cooler and cooled, chapalagraahaka metal.

The electricity storage vessel should be manufactured as follows: A foot-plate 5 feet long, 8 feet high, 1 foot thick, half-moon shaped, should be made of above metal. The vessel should be shaped like a big pot, with a cylindrical top. It should have a glass covering. 2 pipes 3 feet wide 6 feet high should be fixed in the vessel in the northern and southern sides. They should also be covered with glass. Between the two pipes two wheels with hinges and switches etc. should be fixed. When the switches are put on or turned, causing the two wheels to revolve, electricity will flow from the bottom of the 4 vessels into the two pipes and ascend. Two tubes, 6 inches long, should be prepared, wound round with deer skin, tied with silk thread or silk cloth. The Vajramukhee copper wires cleaned with acids, should be passed through each tube, and taken to the two pipes in the vessel and be fixed with glass cups. 8 palas or 32 tolas of mercury should be placed in the energy container vessel. 391st vidyunmukha mani, wound round with copper wiring with mixing switch, should also be inserted. Then taking the wires in the pipes they should be connected with the wiring of the mani through the kaachakanku hole. In each of the vessels, excepting the middle one, two churning rods should be fixed in the centre. The rods should be made of steel or shakti skandha. They should be 3 feet high and 1 foot thick. Keys should be fixed in them for obverse and reverse churning. To the east of the churning machine wheels should be fixed for raising and lowering. An 8 inches high naala or tube should be fixed. On either side of it should be fixed 5 wheels of 5 inches height, like the wheel of the water lifting machine. 2 inches wide flat pattis made of shakti skandha metal should be passed from the wheels inside the Aavritta-naala to the keys of the wheels in the churning yantra. Then revolving wheels should be attached to the naalas or tubes of the stambha or big pipe. By the turning of these keys, it will operate like the turning of the churning

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rod back and forth as in churning curds by drawing and relaxing the rope ends.

Then according to Darpana-shaastra, four vessels, shaped like the bamboo cylinder used on the pounding mortar, should he made out of ghrinyaakarshana glass or solar-heat absorbing glass and fixed on the mouth of the 4 vessels.

The vessel is described by Lallaacharya: 8 inches wide and 1 foot high, and then 2 feet wide and 6 feet high, and at the top a 6 feet wide mouth.

25 palas or 100 tolas of bamboo salt, should be put in it. Then amsupaa mani or solar-ray crystal of the 325th kind, duly cleaned in acid, should be put in it with rice salt. Then rice hay should be spread over it tightly, and facing the sun. The rays from all sides are imbibed by them, and will enter the vessel daily to 105 degrees' strength. If kept thus in the sun for 12 days, 1080 linkas of electric power will be accumulated in each vessel.

In order to store this power in the storage vessel six inches long steel tubes should connect the bottom of the vessel with the storage vessel. They should be covered by deer skin and wound round with silk cloth or yarn. Two copper wires should be passed through the tubes and connected to the storage vessel. 100 palas of mercury should be put in the vessel. And a 391th type of sun crystal duly wired should be placed in the mercury, and the wires coming from the tubes should be connected to it.

The well-oiled keys in the 4 vessels should be revolved with speed, to 200 degrees heat, when the liquids in the vessels will be boiled by the heat rays. Then the keys should be hastened up to 2000 degrees. By the liquids in each vessel 800 linkas of electricity will be generated. The power should be conveyed by the wires in the kaanta metal tubes to the storage vessel. The crystal will absorb and fill the vessel with the power. In front of the storage vessel a five feet long, 3 feet high circular vessel should be installed. It should be covered all round with the bark of vaari-vriksha.

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Always water will be flowing in it. So instead of water, water skin is indicated. It will give the vessel the effect of water-immersion. Then in that vessel glass cups containing the decoction of shikhaavalee or lead-wort? or achyranthes aspera?, 18 parts of ayaskaanta or loadstone? or steel acid?, and 12 parts of vajrachumbaka acid, should be placed. Then power should be drawn from the storage vessel through the wires inside the glass-covered tube, and 4 wires with glass wheel key be let into the acid vessels. Then from the bottom of the vessels 2 wires fitted with keys should be taken in a right circle to the front of the smoke-outlet stambha or pipe, and attached to the wires inside the bhujyu metal tube. The wires should also be connected to the keys of the electric friction crystals in the dhoomodgama stambha or pillar, as also to the key in the stambha. Thereby electricity will be spread in all parts of the vimaana. Therefore the vidyud-yantra or electrical machine should be installed in the left side of the vimaana.

Vaata-prasaarana Yantra
Air Spreading Machine.

Kriyaasaara says:

In order to enable the vimaana to ascend, vaataprasaarana yantra is necessary.

Therefore it is now being described. It should be made out of vaatamitra metal only.

Lohatantra describes vaatamitra loha. 13 parts of rasaanjanika or extract of Indian berbery, 27 parts of prabhanjana, and 37 parts of paraankusha, should be filled in sarpaasya or serpent-faced crucible, placed in chakramukha furnace, and with the aid of vaaranaasya bhastrika or bellows, heated to 216 degrees. Then filled in the sameekarana yantra or churner, and next poured out and cooled, it will yield vaatamitra loha, or air-companion metal.

First the foot plate, then the naala-stambha or tubular pole, air pumping wheel with keys, air attracting bellows-like mechanism, and mechanism for contracting and expanding the mouth, out-flow and inflow tubes with keys, covering for the yantras, wind pipes, vaatodgama

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pipe, bhastrikonmukha, vaatapoorakeelakas, vaata nirasana pankha keelaakas, or air-expelling fan keys, these 12 are the organs of the yantra.

The Peetha or foot plate.

The peetha should be 6 feet long, 1 foot thick, square or round, with two spots on the northern and southern side of it for erecting three-wheeled tubular poles.

The 3 wheeled naala stambha is described in "Yaana bindu":

Three feet long and 8 feet high tubular poles should be fixed on 2 sides of the peetha or foot-plate. At the foot and the middle and the top of the pole three openings should be provided for fixing 3 wheels.

In the pole should be fixed tubes, one foot wide and 2 feet long, for drawing in air, and wheels 1 foot wide with teeth as in hack-saw, revolving both ways, be fitted to the tubes. The vaata-pooraka or air-filling naala should be fixed in the middle of the wheel. By turning the fly wheel, the wheel will turn, making the naala move up and down sucking in air. The air pumping wheel keys should be thus fixed in the two poles. The keys at the mouth of the bellows should be connected to these keys.

Bhastrikaa-Mukha-Yantra
Bellows' mouth mechanism

Taking pig-skin, duly cleaning it with putrajeevi or wild olive oil, boil it for 3 days, wash it with clean water. Smear it with gajadantika oil frequently exposing to sun for 5 days, and fashion out of it a 6 foot bellows, three feet wide at bottom, 4 feet wide in the middle, and 1 foot wide at the mouth. Two keys working conversely to each other should be fixed at the mouth. A stick should be inserted between them. The two keys should be capable of being put into quick motion, or left at rest. By turning the keelakas the piston rod is moved, and from its speed, the bellows' mouth also will start in motion, and also the vaataakarshana naala. By putting the naala at the mouth of the bhastrika or bellows, quick air entry from inside the mouth will occur. By starting all the keelakaas in all the centres there will be airflow in the three wheel tubular stambhas. By turning the

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keelakas with 20 heat-degree force, in the naala stambhas air will rush out with 100 shaker speed. From the bellows' mouth also air will blow with 2000 prenkhana or shaker speed. And these air flows will speed the motion of the vimaana. Therefore in front of the vaatodgama yantra 12 such yantras should be installed on the four sides, 3 on each side. And aavarana or covering should be provided for them according to their measurements. And 12 naala stambhas, 3 feet wide and 12 feet high, should be prepared, and fixed on the top covering of the yantras, for the air to flow out. From each stambha air will blow with 2600 prenkhana speed. The yantras are individually prescribed so that some may rest when not required. The high flight will be helped by these machines. Having thus described the individual sources of air supply for the vimaana, we shall now describe the Brihat-stambha or main mast.

It should be 4 feet wide and 30 feet high, and called vaatodgama naala stambha. It should be erected centrally amidst all the yantras. The bhastrikonmukha yantras should be fixed at the foot of the stambha so that the air flows from the yantras could pass into the stambha. The wind-naalaas or pipes should be connected to the stambha-moola fitted with keys. At the opening of the naala-stambha at the top on the 8 inch wide opening a vessel one foot high and 3 feet wide should be fixed. The wind from the stambha or tunnel will pass out through it in wavy billows. The dhoomodgama yantra or smoke pipe should, be provided with triple keys or fixtures, for the expulsion of smoke. and blowing in of air. By operating those keelakas the supply of smoke and air could be controlled according to need. Wind expelling fan wheels should be put in, so that by their quick motion the motion of the vimaana could be facilitated.

Vimaana-aavarana-nirnaya
Covering of the Vimaana

Covering the dhoomodgama yantras and kudyaas or side walls, as in the case of the Shakuna Vimaana, the covering of the Sundara vimaana should be done by raajaloha only. The covering should accommodate the number of partitions or booths required as in Shakuna Vimaana. The location of the 32 component yantras should be determined.

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[paragraph continues] In the centre of the booths for locating the four-faced heat machinery, a thirty feet square area should be set apart.. There the four-faced heat yantra should be erected.

Says Yantrasarvasva:

The chaatur-mukha owshnya yantra should be made out of kundodara metal only. Kundodara metal is defined in Lohasarvasva.

Soma, Kanchuka, and shundaala metals in the proportion of 30, 45, and 20 to be taken, cleaned and filled in padma crucible, placed in chhatramukha furnace, and with vaasukee bellows heated to 716 degrees, aa-netraanta, and poured into the yantra for cooling. A blue, fine, light, alloy, capable of bearing 2000 degree heat, and which cannot be blasted even by shataghnee and sahasraghnee canons, and very cold, is kundodara alloy. With this alloy the owshnyaka yantra should be fashioned.

Yantraangas or parts of the Machine.

Peetha or foot-plate, smoke container kunda or vessel, water container, fire oven, turret covering, covering of water container, twin wheels for projecting and restraining smoke, window rods, padmachakras or wheels, aavritta chakra keela, heat indicator, speedometer, time clock, ravaprasaarana keelaka naala or sound transmitting instrument, antardandaaghaata naala, air-bellows, long sundaala pipes, twin copper pipes, air dividing wheel keys, these 18 parts constitute the ooshmyaka yantra.

The peetha, tortoise-shaped, should be 25 feet long and wide. At peethaadi or starting end should be fixed the agni-kosha or fire place, the water vessel in the middle, and the smoke-container should be fixed at the other end.

The 3 koshaas are explained by Budila:

Ravi or copper, manchoulika, and tigma in equal parts should be mixed with kundodara metal, and be made into 3 inches thick pattika or flats. One pattika should be fixed on the peetha. In the fire place, kendra on the peetha a 4 feet long 6 feet high fire-place should be made. For stocking coal or wooden billets, a sort of walled table should be formed. Next a triangular fire-place should be formed,

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with rods at the bottom for the ashes to fall down. In between the 2 parts the flat sheet should be fixed, fitted with keelakas or hinges for moving the peetha as desired. Three keelakas should be fixed at the fire place, one to fan the flames and straighten them, one to moderate or stimulate the flames, and one to distribute the flames evenly. A naala or pipe should be fixed on the fire kosa. Another pipe with wiring, is to be fixed at the end of the fire-kosa pattika with a smoke transmitting pipe which will convey the smoke of the fire-place to the jalakosa or water container. From the fire kosa to the covering of the water kosa water pipes should be adjusted. In the water kosa enclosure the heat will rise to 5000 linkas in these tubes. The heated water will then give out hot smoke.

The size of the jalakosa or water container is 8 feet. Three triple-wheeled naalas or pipes should be fixed in the jalakosa: one to restrain the heated smoke from the water, one to amass the smoke, and one to lead the smoke into the dhoomakosa or smoke-container. The Dhoomakosa should be 6 feet wide and 4 feet high. In order to fill the kosha with smoke, necessary fittings should be provided. Above the jalakosa a dome-like covering should be erected. It should be provided with fittings, for folding up and opening out. To the front of the smoke container, two pattikaa wheels with holes should be fixed in order to let out the smoke or to restrain it. In order to operate the wheels two bhraamanee keelakaas or revolving switches should be provided. To the east of the Dhooma-kunda, 8 inches long window bars should be fixed with one inch spacings. Then in front of the yantra, in the middle, at top, at bottom, and on both sides, twin padmachakra keelakas should be fixed for spreading the smoke or restraining it. For storing the wood or coal a hole 11 feet wide should be arranged. The door covering it should be provided with needful fittings. To the north and south of the keelaka the heat-measure and speedometer should be fixed. Above them the timepiece. To the south, a telephonic device called ravaprasaarana or sound ringer, which will give alarm with 1212 sound wave speed, and which gives warnings for the plane's moving, halting, speeding, overspeeding, and danger imminence. An equipment with 5 holes giving 5 different sounds to indicate the above should be installed. On either side of the above, two 6 inches wide, 26 feet tall, Aaghaatha-naalas or pipes should be fixed. Between them two 5 inches thick metal rods are to be adjusted. At the foot, middle, and top of the naalas revolving

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wheel keelakas should be fitted. By their revolving, the rods will strike each other. That will increase the speed of the plane. On the top of the naala pipes, air bellows with fittings should be fixed. Thereby the air force in the naalas will shoot up, and the speed of the vimaana will double. Then on the four sides of the heated smoke kosha or container, shundaalas or elephant-trunk-like pipes should be fixed with wheeled keys as in vaatodgama yantra. By filling the shundaalas with the smoke and turning the keys as required, the movement of the vimaana in one direction or another, its gaining height and speeding out or halting, will be facilitated. Keys should be adjusted so as to make the shundaalas coil down like a water hose or keep erect. Two pipes made of 3rd division copper should he wound round the agnikosa, water kosa, and smoke kosa, or fire, water and smoke koshas, in order to absorb the excessive heat in them.

In order to part the wind in front of the vimaana, vaata-vibhajana chakra keela or wind-dividing-wheel fittings should be fixed.

Having thus prepared the chaaturmukhoshmyaka yantra, or four-faced heating machine, it should be installed in the centre of the vimaana. By the air, smoke, and heat of the yantras below, the ascent and flight of the vimaana will be facilitated.

Regarding the speed of the vimaana, we have to consider the speed of smoke and other accessories mathematically, and conclude the possibility of the speed of the vimaana. The speed of the smoke from dhooma yantra is 2113 linkas. The speed of wind from the air blowing machine 2500 linkas. Wind from the naala-stambha blows at the speed of 600 linkas. This is the speed of the forces from the 3 machines on the peetha. Of the forces from the upper portion of the vimaana, from the chatur-mukhoshmyaka yantra, heat force of 3400 linkas emanates. By the four-faced heat yantra, and by operating the keys of the shundaalas, and the force of the wind, smoke and heat machines, the vimaana would be capable of a speed of 400 yojanas or 3600 miles.

This is Sundara Vimaana, and it has been described after consulting ancient works, and according to my humble capacity, says Maharshi Bharadwaaja.

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RUKMA VIMAANA
"Atha Rukma Vimaana Nirnayaha"

Next the principles of Rukma Vimaana.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Rukmascha" Sootra 1.

"Rukma too"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

This vimaana is of golden colour. Therefore it is called Rukma vimaana, Rukma meaning gold. The Rukma should be made out of Raajaloha only. By duly processing, Raajaloha can be made to assume golden colour. That metal should be used for the vimaana.

"Yaana-Bindu" says,

"After first producing golden colour for Raajaloha, the vimaana should be formed."

"Varna-sarvasva" mentions the colouring process:

Praana-kshaara or ammonium chloride 4 parts, wild Bengal gram 32 parts, shashakanda (or lodhra?) benzoin? 18 parts, naaga or lead 20 parts, sea-foam 16 parts, maakshika or iron pyrites 6 parts, panchaanana or iron 20 parts, paara or mercury 15 parts, kshaara-traya or 3 kinds of salt: natron, salt-petre, borax, 28 parts, panchaanana or mica 20 parts, hamsa or silver 17 parts, garada or aconite 8 parts, and panchaamrita or 5 sweets--curds, milk, ghee, sugar, honey, these should be filled in the melter, and after boiling, and drawing the liquid through two outlets, fill in the crucible and place in furnace, and blow to 800 degrees' heat, and then transfer it to the cooler.

That will be Raajaloha, pure, golden-coloured, tensile, and mild. The vimaana, made out of this loha or alloy, will be very beautiful and delightful.

The Peetha

The peetha or ground plate of the Rukma vimaana should be tortoise-shaped, 1000 feet long, and 1 foot thick, or any other desired

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size. On its eight sides, 20 feet long spaces should be fixed underneath the peetha. At each centre fixtures like birds' beaks should be attached with revolving keelakas. Then double iron-balls or wheels, in couples, should be fixed in each of the 8 centres.

Ayas-chakra

Lalla gives the form of ayaschakra-pinda:

12 feet long and wide, and 8 kankushtas in weight, they should be made round like a grind-stone. They should be inserted in the beaks at the 8 centres. From each chakra-pinda up to the electrical generator chain wires should be connected with switches.

Batinikaa-Stambha
Or Button-switch pole

One foot wide and 4 feet high poles should be fixed. They should have switches wired up to the electric pole. 8 inches wide wheels should be fixed in the middle of the pole, on either side, with wires. From the electric pole chain wires should enclose the wheels and be fixed in another pole with inside hinges. On the top of the poles should be fixed goblet shaped cups with button-switches like half-blooms with wheels and keys, so that on pressing the button with the thumb the wheels in the other pole will revolve from electric contact. Then the wheels in the electric pole will also revolve, producing 5000 linkas of speed.

Flying

Due to this electrical force, the ayah-pinda wheels beneath the peetha will beat against it and make it rise and move upwards. And by moving the switches of the wheeled poles above the peetha, the poles will revolve with speed, and accelerate the speed of the vimaana. By the concussion of the wheels underneath, and the action of the poles above, the vimaana will move upwards and gain height and fly with dignity.

Electric tube wheels aiding flight:

Above the peetha, naalas or tubes should be fixed at 1 foot intervals. On both sides of each naala toothed wheels 2 feet wide and 1 foot high should be fixed with proper keelakas. Taking electric wires through

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the keelakas, and passing over the wheels and reaching the foot of each naala, they should be attached to wheels 3 feet wide and 3 feet high. In the midst of 20 naalas a pole should be fixed in the centre.

Narayana says:

Preparing a pillar 4 feet wide and 4 feet high, and making a 2 feet opening in its middle, fix keelakas at the top, middle, and lower end of the opening. Two keelakas with 6 wheels, with glass coverings, with wires, and naala and leather covering should be fixed at the lower end for attracting electricity. In the middle part of the opening, for transmitting the current, a five-faced keelaka should be fixed, with 5 wheels, glass covering, 2 naala tubes, two wires, attached to 3 rods, and vessel containing veginee oil. By the flow of the current the wheels in the upper end should be made to whirl by properly adjusting keys. In front of the opening a big wheel should be fixed with gumbha keelakas. Similarly wheels should be fixed at the foot of each pillar. On top of them a four inch wide pattika or flat band should be adjusted commencing from the samsarga key chakra up to the front of the electric yantra. By operating that key, power will flow through the wires, and entering the key at the foot of the pillar set the wheels in motion. On the motion of the big wheel the sandhi-wheels in the naala-dandas will also revolve with speed, and the current will enter the 5 faced keelaka, and entering the oil vessel it will gather force, and passing through the 2 naalas, set all the wheels in the pillar in forceful motion, generating 25000 linkas speed, which will give the vimaana 105 krosa or nearly 250 miles speed per ghatika, or 24 minutes.

Having dealt with the mechanism for setting the vimaana in motion, we now consider the mechanism for giving direction to the vimaana in its course. In the 8 diks or directions of the peetha, pillars made of mica and shining like panchakantha, 2 feet thick and 15 feet high should be fixed at intervals of 10 feet. On the pillars should be built the passenger seating arrangements, and booths or locations for the machinery, as in the case of the Sundara Vimaana. The pillars should be made of mica only.

Its production is given in Kriyaasaara:

Shaara-graava or lime 25 parts, kshwinkaasatva or iron-sulphate 30 parts, gunja or wild-liquorice 28 parts, tankana or borax 12 parts,

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roudree moola 8 parts, chaandree or kantakaari....solanum xanthocarpum flower salt 2 part, purified shoonya or mica 100 parts,, to be filled in koorma crucible, and heated in paadma furnace with blower to 800 degrees, and then poured into the cooler, will yield mica alloy most useful and attractive. Fashioning the pillars or walls or partitions and booths, and fixing the mechanisms for turning, circling, diving, and manoeuvring, in the fore and middle and aft of the vimaana, it could be moved in any direction as desired.

Lallaacharya says:

In order to make the vimaana change its course from one path to another or one direction to another, revolving keelakas should be fixed on the eight sides of the vimaana. Two keelakas should be made, purva and apara, or right side and left side. They should be fitted together.

By operating it, the vimaana could be made to change its course one way or another. In order to operate the keelaka, at the peetha moola, on the 4 sides crescent shaped naalaas or tubes, 2 feet wide and 2 feet high should be fixed. 4 inches long metal rods should be fixed inside the naalaas on either side. One foot wide and 1 foot high wheels should be fixed in them. They should be wired all around. Such crescent naalas should be fixed on the 4 sides of the peetha. In order to set the wheels in the naalas in motion big wheels should be fixed at the beginning, middle, and end of the naalas. By turning the top wheel with speed the wheels inside the naalas will revolve. That will force the keela-shankus to twist round so as to force the vimaana to change its course in the required direction.



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TRIPURA VIMAANA
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Tripurothha." Sootra 2.

"Next Tripura."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having explained the vimaanas commencing from Shakuna to Simhikaa, Tripura vimaana will now be dealt with.

This vimaana has 3 enclosures, or aavaranas or tiers. Each aavarana is called "Pura." As it consists of 3 aavaranas it is called "Tripura" vimaana. It is operated by the motive power generated by solar rays.

Narayana also says:

The vimaana which naturally can travel on land, sea, and in the sky by alteration of its structure is called Tripura Vimaana.

It has got 3 parts. The first part can travel on land. The second part can travel under and over water. The 3rd part travels in the sky. By uniting the 3 parts by means of keelakas, the plane can be made to travel in the sky. The plane is divisible into 3 parts so that it might travel on land, sea, or air. The construction of the 1st part is now explained. Tripura vimaana should be made out of Trinetra metal only.

Trinetra loha is explained by Shaakataayana:

Jyotishmatee loha 10 parts, kaanta-mitra 8 parts, vajramukha loha 16 parts, these 3 to be filled in crucible, then adding tankana or borax 5 parts, trynika 7 parts, shrapanikaa 11 parts, maandalika 5 parts, ruchaka or natron 3 parts, mercury 3 parts, then filled in crucible in padmamukha furnace and heated to 631 degrees with trimukhee bellows, the resulting liquid, if poured into cooler, will yield a metal, shining like peacock feather, unburnable, unbreakable, weightless, impregnable by water, fire, air and heat, and indestructible.

With that metal the peetha should be prepared, of any desired size. The following is given as an example. It may be 100 feet wide

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and 3 feet thick, round or square. Leaving 20 feet on the western side, at intervals of 10 feet 80 spots should be marked for wheeled boats. 80 feet long, 3 feet wide, 5 feet high boat shaped dronies or containers should be fixed on the marked lines. Three feet wide openings should be made in the top of the dronies, so as to raise the wheel inside them quickly and cover them underneath. There should be fittings which enable the wheels to be lowered on land, and raised and covered underneath when going in water. The wheels should have axle rods with fittings to attract electric power. The axle rods should be 2? feet long and 1 foot thick. The wheels should be 3 feet wide and 1 foot thick, have, 5, 6, or 7 spokes, fixed in the rims, and covered with musheeka up to 4 inches from the edge. Holes with glass coverings should be made in all the wheels. These 12 wheels, or 8, or 6, or 4, should be fixed inside the boat-like structure. For transmitting power wires made of somakaanta loha should be fixed in the holes made in the wheels. In the middle of each wheel electric aaghaata keelakaas should be fixed, and in them chhidraprasaarana keelakas. Over all the chakradronee boats, copper wire pairs should be fixed on both sides, and in the joints of the wheels. Rods should be attached to the wires so that power could be drawn from the wires and passed to the top of the wheels. And power should be passed to the wires underneath the wheels. In climbing hills, and going down slopes, by adjusting the power at the top or the bottom of the wheels, smooth progress is made possible. By adjusting the necessary keelakas it is possible to accelerate the speed, or in going down, to restrain the flow of the current, and put brake on excess speed.

For attracting power from the generator a naala or pipe with wires should be fixed at the front of the peetha through 5 faced wheel keelakas, and the wires should be connected to the fittings at the top and bottom of the wheels, with glass cups.

In order to put covering over the boat formations, pillars should be fixed between each boat line, and covered with mica sheets, as per architectural rules.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Shuddhhaambaraattadhhi." Sootra 3.

"Out of pure mica alone"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The vimaana should be made out of pure mica alone.

Mica is described in "Dhatu sarvasva ". There are four kinds of mica, white mica, red mica, yellow mica, and black mica. The white mica has 16 varieties. Red mica has 12 varieties. The yellow mica has 7 varieties. And the black mica has 15 varieties. Thus there are 50 varieties in all.

Shownakeeya also says:

We shall now describe the nature of abhraka or mica. They are of 4 castes, like brahmin, kshatriya, vysya, and sudra. They are of 50 varieties. The brahmin mica has 16 varieties. The kshatriya mica has 12 varieties. The vysya mica has 7 varieties. And the sudra mica has 15 varieties, totalling 50 in all. Their names are as follows. The brahmin mica varieties are ravi, ambara, bhraajaka, rochishmaka, pundareeka, virinchika, vajragarbha, koshambara, sowvarchala, somaka, amritanetra, shytyamukba, kuranda, rudraasya, panchodara and rukmagarbha. The kshatriya varieties are shundeeraka, shambara, rekhaasya, owdumbara, bhadraka, panchaasya, amshumukha, raktanetra, manigarbha, rohinika, somaamshaka, and kourmika. The vysya varieties are krishnamukha, shyaamarekha, garalakosha, panchadhaara, ambareeshaka, manigarbha, and krownchaasya. The shoodra varieties are gomukha, kanduraka, showndika, mugdhaasya, vishagarbha, mandooka, thailagarbha, rekhaasya, parvanika, raakaamsuka, praanada, drownika, raktabandhaka, rasagraahaka, vranahaarika.

Out of these, pundareeka from the 1st class, rohinika from the second, panchadhaara from the third, and drownika from the 4th class are good for use in constructing the vimaana. These should first be purified as per rules.

The process of purification is given in "Samskaara Ratnaakara": skandhaaraka or salt of roitleria tinctoria?, shaaranika or rubus salt?, pinjulee or yellow orpiment?, cowries, borax, kaakajanghaa or wild

p. 114

liquorice?, moss, rowdrikaa, salt-petre, douvaarika, shambara or benzoin, and phosphorus. These should be separately filled in the smelter. The decoctions should be filled in glass vessels. The mica is to be purified with each one of these.

The mica is to be powdered, put in skandhaavaara acid in smelting vessel. It should be boiled for 3 days in fire, and for 3 days in electric heat. Then take the liquid and put it in a bronze vessel, pour in shaaranika acid and keep it in sun for 3 days. Then add pinjulee acid and keep buried in earth for 5 days. Afterwards add cowri acid, and boil in bhoodhara yantra for one day. Then add mustard, and adding borax acid and burning arjuna, myrabolan wood, place it in brown-barked acacia cinders for 3 days. Then add wild liquorice acid and expose it to the full moon rays on the 14th and 15 days. The mica is to be then taken out and washed in hot water. Then add wild corn, and pouring in moss acid place it under earth for 6 days. Then take out the mica, add roudri acid, place the vessel in a big fire-place, and burn in 64 feet of dried cowdung. Next taking o
vril4~0.jpg
Vril 4265 viewsAccording other sources; in 1875, the Vimanika Shastra, a 400 BC text written by Maharshi Bhardwaj was discovered in a temple in India. The book dealt with the operation of ancient Vimanas (thus IFOs) and included information in steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning, and how to switch the drive to solar energy or some other free energy (ZPE) source, possibly some sort of "gravity drive". Vimanas (Yantras or Astras) move...The Vymaanika-Shaastra, G.R. Josyer tr., at sacred-texts.com


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SECOND CHAPTER
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Oosh mapaastriloha Mayaaha." Sootra 1.

"Ooshmapaa metals are made up of 3 metals."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The heat-proof metals are made out of the three, Souma, Soundaala, and Morthweeka mentioned in the previous chapter. It is said in "Loha Ratnaakara" that each of the three yields varieties of seed metals. Their names are, in souma group,--souma, soumyaka, sundaasya, soma, panchaanana, ooshmapa, shaktigarbha, jaangalika, praanana, shankha, and laaghava; The names of the metals of soundeera origin, are viranchi, souryapa, shanku, ushna, soorana, shinjikaa, kanku, ranjika, soundeera, mugdha, and ghundaaraka. In the mourthweeka group, the 11 are anuka, dvyanuka, kanka, tryanuka, shvetaambara, mridambara, baalagarbha, kuvarcha, kantaka, kshvinka and laghvika.

p. 19

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Melanaath" Sootra 2.

"By Mixing"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The said metals are to be mixed in requisite proportions and melted. It is said in "Lohatantra" that ushnambhara metal is produced by mixing numbers 10, 5, 8 of soma, soundala, mourthweeka groups of metals respectively in the proportion of 1, 3, 7, and mixing with one third the quantity of tankana or borax and melting in the crucible. Similarly taking metals no, 3, 5, and 7 respectively in the three groups in the proportion of 4, 1, and 8, and mixing with tankana, and melting in crucible, the metal ooshma is obtained. Metal ooshmahana is produced by melting metals 2, 5, and 9 from the three groups in the proportion of 6, 3, and 7, with tankana. Metal Raaja is produced by melting nos. 3, 8, and 2 of the three groups as before. Similarly metal Aamlatrit is produced by taking numbers 9, 7, 1 in the three metal groups, in the proportion of 10, 7, 8 and mixing with tankana and melting as prescribed.

Similarly metals 6, 4, 5, respectively in the proportion of 5, 5, 12, melted with tankana or borax, will yield the metal veerahaa. The metal panchaghna is got by taking numbers 8, 6, and 4 of the three groups in the proportion of 20, 18, 26, and mixing with tankana or borax and melting.

The metal agnitrit is produced by mixing numbers 5, 2, 10, in the proportion of 30, 20, and 10, and melting with borax in the crucible. The metal bhaarahana is produced by mixing numbers 7, 11, and 6 in the three groups in the proportion of 5, 12, and 7, mixing with borax, and melting in the crucible.

To produce metal sheetahana, metals 10, 9, and 3 in the three groups respectively, in the proportion of 22, 8, and 10, should be mixed with borax and melted in the crucible. Garalaghna is produced by taking numbers 11, 10, and 11 in the three groups in the proportion of 20, 30, and 8, and melting with borax in the crucible.

Similarly Aamlahana is produced by taking numbers 11, 8, and 4 in the three groups in the proportion of 20, 12, 36, and melting with borax in the crucible. Metal Vishambhara is produced by taking numbers 19, 8, and 10 in

p. 20

the three Ooshmapa groups respectively in the proportion of 20, 12, and 6, and melting with borax in the crucible.

Metal vishalyakrit is produced by taking numbers 3, 5, and 11, in the proportion of 20, 12, and 6, and melting in the crucible with borax. Dwijamitra is produced by taking numbers 8, 3, and 9 in the pro-portion 5, 8, 10, and melting with borax in the crucible. And metal Vaatamitra is produced by taking numbers 8, 6, and 5 in the three groups of Ooshmapa metals, in the proportion of 22, 8, and 10, and adding borax and melting in the crucible.

Mooshaadhikaranam: The Crucible.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Panchamaad dwitheeyay " Sootra 3.

"From the 5th variety in the 2nd group."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

According to "Nirnayaadhikaara", the melting of the superior, medium, and inferior kinds of metals is to be done in 407 different kinds of crucibles. They are divided into 12 groups. For the melting of the root-metals the second group of crucibles is considered the best.

Lallacharya also states that metallurgists mention 12 kinds of metals: kritaka or artificial, apabhramshaka or corrupted, sthalaja or mud-born, khanija or found in mines, jalaja or aquatic, dhaatuja or mineral-born, oshadhivargaja or vegetation-born, krimija or evolved from vermin, maamsaja or flesh-born, kshaaraja or grown from salts, baalaja or hairborn, and andaja or resultant from eggs. Different classes of crucibles are to be used for melting different kinds of metals. In the second class of crucibles there are said to be 40 varieties. Of them, number 5, known as antarmukha or inward-mouthed, is prescribed for melting the root-metals.

It is described in "Mooshaakalpa" or art of making crucibles. 8 parts of gingelly manure or black-gram flour, 4 parts of metal rust, 3 parts of metal, 3 parts of laangalee or jussieuea repens or gloriosa superba, 6 parts of gum arabic, 2 parts of ruruka, 3 parts of salt-petre, 5 parts of creepers, 6 parts of charcoal, 5 parts of 5 kinds of grasses, 4 parts of paddy husk ashes, 2 parts of red arsenic, 2 parts of naagakesara, 5 parts of varolika

p. 21

flower, 5 parts of borax, 2 parts of black laamancha or scented grass or andropogon muricatus, 5 parts of sindoora or red ochre, 2 parts of gunja seeds or wild liquorice, 4 parts of sea-foam, all these are to be ground and made into fine flour, to which are added equal quantity of gum and 5 parts of earth and dust, and the whole is baked in a vessel with shivaaree oil for 3 yaamaas or 9 hours. When the contents have unified and become properly fluid, it should be poured through the nozzle into the crucible mould, and allowed to rest. The resultant crucible, known as "antarmukha," would be best suited to melt the metals required for producing a Vimaana.

Athha Vyaasatikaadhikaranam: The Fire-place.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Athha Kundas-Saptamay-Nava". Sootra 4.

"Then fire-place, number 9 in class 7."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having dealt with crucible in the last sootra, we now consider the fire-place.

Experts mention 532 varieties of vyaasatikaas or fire-places. Of them Koorma-vyaasatika, or tortoise-shaped fire-place is best suited for melting the seed-metals for the Vimaana.

Kunda-kalpa or the art of furnace construction mentions 532 kinds of furnaces. They are divided into seven classes, each including 76 varieties. Furnace no. 9 in the 7th class, is best suited for melting the requisite metals of the vimaana, and its name is koorma-vyaasatikaa, or tortoise-shaped furnace.

It is said in "Kunda-nirnaya ", that on a prepared ground, a quadrilateral or circular shaped furnace 10 feet wide should be constructed, shaped like a tortoise. In order to place the bellows, there should be constructed a pedestal shaped like a tortoise, and with five faces. In the middle of the furnace arrangements should be made for placing the crucible. On either side of the furnace there should be an enclosure for stocking charcoal. And on either side there should be a mechanism for receiving the molten metal.

p. 22

Athha Bhastrikaadhikaranam: The Bellows.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Syaad-bhastrikaashtame Shodashee" Sootra 5.

"The bellows should be number 16 in the 8th class."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The making of bellows is referred to in this sootra. It is said in "Bhastrikaa Nibandhana," that as there are 532 kinds of furnaces, there are 532 kinds of bellows. Narayana also says that there are 532 varieties of bellows used in melting metals. They arc divided into 8 classes. In the eighth class, the variety numbered 16 is the one suited for the tortoise--shaped furnace. The construction of bellows is described in the work "Bhastrikaa-Nibandhana", as follows:

The barks of suitable trees, leather, thick cloth made from milk cream, bark of areca-nut palm tree, and trinetra (bael? Bengal Quince?), shundeera, suranji, silk-cotton, sheneera, munjaakara, and jute by due processing yield suitable cloth of 605 varieties with which pretty and attractive bellows could be made, with fittings of wood or copper.
THIRD CHAPTER
Darpanaadhikaranam: Mirrors & Lenses.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Darpanaashcha" Sootra 1.

"Mirrors".

Bodhaananda Vritti:

This chapter deals with the mirrors and lenses which are required to be installed in the vimaana. They are seven different ones. Their names are

p. 23

given by Lalla in "Mukura-kalpa" as Vishwakriyaadarpana, or television mirror, Shaktyaakarshana darpana or power-capturing mirror, Vyroopya darpana or appearance changing mirror, Kuntinee darpana, Pinjulaa darpana, Guhaagarbha darpana, and Rowdree darpana or terrifying darpana.

Vishwakriyaa darpana is to be fixed on a revolving stand near the pilot so that he could observe whatever is happening outside on all sides. Its manufacture is thus described in Kriyaasaara:

Two parts of satva, 2 parts of shundilaka, one part of eagle bone, 5 parts of mercury, 2 parts of the foot-nails of sinchoranee, 6 parts of mica, 5 parts of red lead, 8 parts of pearl dust, 18 parts of the eyeballs of sowmyaka fish, one part burning coal, 8 parts of snake's slough, 3 parts of eye pigment, 6 parts of maatrunna, 10 parts of granite sand, 8 parts of salts, 4 of lead, 2 parts of sea foam, 3 parts of white throated eagle's skin, 7 parts of bamboo salt, 5 parts of vyraajya or white keg tree bark, these ingredients should be purified, and weighed, and filled in a beaked crucible and placed in the furnace called chandodara and subjected to a 800 degree heat, and when duly liquified, should be poured into the funnel of the kara-darpana yantra or hand-mirror mould. The result will be an excellent mirror in which will be reproduced minute details of the phenomena outside.

Next Shaktyaakarshana darpana:

As the vimaana flies through the regions of the sky, three classes of destructive forces tend to overcome it. This mirror is capable of neutralising and overcoming their effects.

Dhundinaathaachaarya also says: The wind, solar rays, and fire are known as trivargas. Each of the three has 122 evil effects on the plane's pilot. Those evil forces this mirror will absorb and nullify.

Paraankusha also says: There are certain crucial regions in the air routes of the vimaana, at which the wind, solar heat and fire have 366 malefic influences, and shaktyaakarshana mirror is meant to safeguard against them. It is to be prepared as follows:

5 parts of haritaala or yellow orpiment, 5 parts of virinchi, 8 parts of salts, 4 parts of gingelly husk, 6 parts of diamond, 1 of red mica, 8 parts of burning coal, 3 parts of sand, 2 parts of tortoise egg, 3 parts of bhaarani, 3 parts of kanda, 5 parts of powshkala, 5 of coral, 2 of pearl, 6 of sea-shell,

p. 24

[paragraph continues] 8 of borax, 3 parts of Bengal quince seed, and 5 of shankha or conch, cleaned, powdered, filled in swan crucible, placed in mandooka furnace and boiled to 500 degrees and poured slowly into vistritaa-mirror yantra will yield a fine shaktyaakarshana mirror.

The Vyroopya--darpana Mirror:

When enemy planes with men intent on intercepting and destroying your vimaana attack you with all the means at their disposal, the viroopya-darpana will frighten them into retreat or render them unconscious and leave you free to destroy or rout them. The darpana, like a magician, will change the appearance of your vimaana into such frightening shapes that the attacker will be dismayed or paralysed. There are 27 such different shapes that are said to be possible. Sammohana-kriyaa-kaanda, or the work dealing with the methods causing insensibility, mentions 17 of them. They are fire, water, wind, thunder, lightning, fumes, scorpion, bear, lion, tiger, and giant-sized frightful birds.

The manufacture of this mirror is thus given in Darpana-prakarana:

5 parts of bone salt, 3 parts zinc, 3 of lac, 8 of iron, 3 parts of shashabola, 2 of raajakurantika, 8 parts of charcoal ashes, 3 of borax, 8 parts of nakhaa, 7 of sand, 6 of matrunna, 2 of sun-crystal, 3 parts of poora or lime, 25 of mercury, 3 of yellow orpiment, 4 parts of silver, 6 of kravyaada, 8 of garada, 3 of pishta, 4 parts of arshoghna root, 3 parts of vaaraaha pittha, 3 of ammonium chloride, 25 of liquorice oil, taking these and 7 times purifying, filling in crucible, and placing in furnace and boiling it to 800 degrees and pouring into Darpanaasya yantra, will yield an excellent Vyraajaka mirror.

The Kuntinee Mirror:

We now consider the Kuntinee mirror. The wise say that the mirror by the glare of whose rays people's minds get deranged is Kuntinee mirror. Paraankusha says that in the region of the solar electric heat waves of the sky, seven streams of poisonous whirl-winds derange the mind. Scientists have discovered the Kuntinee mirror as a protection against that evil effect.

In "Sammohana-kriyaa-kaanda," the evil forces are described as follows:

p. 25

Fat, blood, flesh, marrow, bone, skin, intelligence are adversely affected by the evil wind currents known as gaalinee, kuntinee, kaalee, pinjulaa, ulbanaa, maraa, in the electric heat wave regions of the upper sky.

The manufacture of this mirror is thus explained in "Darpana-prakarana":

5 parts of sowraashtra earth, 7 parts of snake's slough, 3 of sea-foam, 5 of shanmukha seeds, 8 of zinc, 3 parts of rhinoceros' nails, 8 of salts, 7 of sand, 8 of mercury, 4 of conch, 6 parts of matrunna, 3 parts of yellow orpiment, 4 of elephant and camel salts, 7 parts of suranghrikaa, 5 of gingelly oil, 8 of pearl-shells, 3 of sea-shells, 4 parts of camphor, purified and filled in shinjikaa crucible, and placed in shinjeera furnace and boiled to 700 degrees, the fluid poured into the Darpanaasya yantra, will form into a morning sun-like kuntinee mirror.

The Pinjulaa mirror:

The conflicting inter-action of the solar rays is called pinjulaa. It has deleterious effect on the black eye-balls of the pilots. The pinjulaa mirror, by intervening will prevent the eye-balls being blinded by the evil rays.

It is said in "Amsubodhinee", or the work on solar rays, "There are four directions, east, west, north and south, and four corner directions, south-east, south-west, north-east and north-west. The solar force of each direction has got its own intensity, owing to different fire-force, different seasonal force, the effect of the five winds, combined with the vaarunee or liquid force of the clouds, and the resulting tension gives rise to four evil forces, andha, andhakaara, pinjoosha, and taarapaa, whose glows, known as rakta, jaathara, taaraagra, and prabha, striking the eye-balls result in blindness of both eyes. "

The manufacture of this mirror is thus described in "Darpana prakarana":

6 parts of goat's milk, 5 parts of red-lead, 8 parts of salts, 7 parts of sand, 5 parts of tree-gum, 8 parts of borax, 2 parts of dambholi essence, 8 parts of mercury, 2 parts of copper and 2 of lead, 4 parts of surolika essence, 8 parts of twak, 3 parts of vaardhyushika, 3 of kanda, 4 parts of pishta or gingelly husk, 3 parts of orpiment, 7 parts of Tinnevelli senna, 4 parts of vrikodaree seeds, these 18 to be purified, powdered, and filled in crucible, and placed in furnace and boiled to 700 degrees, and poured into Darpana yantra, will yield an excellent pinjulaa mirror.

p. 26

Next Guhaa-garbha darpana:

"The conflict between the electricity in the clouds, wind, and rays, generates forces harmful to pilots. The guhaa-garbha darpana, by attracting them and projecting them by electric force against enemy planes, renders the persons inside them physically disabled and incapable of fighting."

"Prapanchasaara" also says:

"In the Middle of the two shells above kashyapa, there is vaarunee force. Between the shell and vaarunee force 5000 wind currents subsist. Similarly there are disease causing rays numbering 80 millions. The various winds and rays by mutual action result in flows and counter flows. When the cloud force, wind force, and solar force interplay they give rise to various harmful forces like bubbles:"

Lallaacharya also avers, "In accordance with the 110th principle, when the cloud-power, wind-power and sun-power meet with force and collide, they produce poisonous effects which are dangerous to mankind."

Vasishtha says in "Swatassiddha-Nyaaya" or "self-evident truth", that when alien forces cross one another, a poisonous flow will result naturally as an egg comes out of a tortoise.

"Sammohana kriyaa-kaanda" explains:

"By the conflict of cloud force, wind force and solar forces, 305105 poisonous waves known as guha and others emanate, and cause, kushtha, apasmaara, grihinee, khaasa, and shoola. Chief among them are five, known as gridhnee, godhaa, kunjaa, roudree, and guhaa. By accelerating them and directing them against the enemy, the guhaa-garbha mirror disables them."

"Darpana prakarana " describes its manufacture thus:

7 parts of couries, 3 parts of manjula or madder root, 6 parts of sea-foam, 8 parts of ranjaka or phosphorous, 6 parts of mandoora or rust, 8 parts of mercury, 3 parts of orpiment, 7 parts of brahmika, 2 parts of lead, 8 parts of eye pigment, 6 parts of matrunnna, 8 parts of sand, 6 parts of kishora, 5 of muchukunda, 2 parts of gingelly oil, 25 of lohika, 5 parts of mridaani garbha essence, 8 of sowraashtra earth, 5 parts of sphatika, 3 of bones, 15 of indusatva or moonstone?, and 5 of dambholi taakaa dwaya satva,

p. 27

taking these 22, purifying and powdering them and filling crucible, and placing in furnace and boiling to 700 degrees, and cooled in yantra, guhaa garbha darpana is produced.

Rowdree-darpana is a mirror or lens which liquefies everything that it flashes against.

Paraankusha says that where Rudraanyosharaa and abhralinga come into contact, a fierce force called roudree comes into being. Mingling with solar rays it melts everything. "Sammohana kriyaa kaanda" says:

"By the mixing of roudree and solar rays an evil force called maarikaa is generated, and impelled by the solar electricity, it destroys the enemy planes."

Darpanaa prakarana describes its manufacture:

8 parts of lead, 3 parts of shaalmali, 7 of durvaara, 8 parts kudupinjara, 21 parts of droonee, 8 parts sun-crystal, 27 parts of rudraanee-graavoshara, 6 parts betel leaves, 8 parts of kowtila, 30 of veeraabhra linga, 8 parts of salts, 7 of sand, 6 parts of matrunna, 3 of dimbhika, 8 of zinc, 13 of ant-hill earth, 6 of gum, 3 of kumbhinee, 3 parts sweet oil, 27 of Tinnevelly senna, 6 of godhaamla, 8 of silk cotton, 8 parts of virinchi satva, 5 parts of kanda, 3 parts of yellow orpimet, 7 parts of kaarmukha, or brown barked acacia?, these 26, powdered, purified, and filled in crucible and placed in furnace and boiled to 800 degrees, and poured into Darpana yantra, will yield a fine roudrikaa-uarpana.
FOURTH CHAPTER
Shaktyadhikaranam: The Power.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Shaktayassapta" Sootra 1.

"The power sources are seven."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In this chapter the motive power of the vimaana is explained. In the functioning of the vimaana, there are 7 distinct operating forces. They are named udgamaa, panjaraa, sooryashaktyapa-karshinee or that which extracts solar power, parashaktyaakarshinee or that which extracts opposite forces, a set of 12 shaktis or forces, kuntinee, and moolashakti or primary force. At set spots in the vimaana, the motors which produce these 7 powers should be installed, duly wired and equipped with springs and wheels, as prescribed.

It is said in "Yantra-sarvasva:"

"The seven kinds of powers which are required for the Vimaana are produced by 7 motors which are named tundila, panjara, amshupa, apakarshaka, saandhaanika, daarpanika, and shaktiprasavaka. Each of these produces its specific power. Thus tundilaa produces udgamaa shakti, panjaraa produces the panjaraa shakti, shaktipaa produces the power which sucks solar power, apakarshaka produces the power which plucks the power of alien planes, sandhaana yantra produces the group of 12 forces, daarpanikaa produces kuntinee shakti, and shakti-prasava yantra produces the main motive power.

Shownaka-sootra also says:

"There are seven sources of power of the vimaana: fire, earth, air, sun, moon, water and sky. The seven kinds of powers are named udgamaa, panjaraa, solar heat absorber, alien force absorber, solar electric dozen, kuntinee, and primary force."

p. 29

"Soudaaminee-kalaa" says:

Ma, la, ya, ra, sa, va, na constitute the seven vimanic forces. Ma is udgamaa, la is panjaraa, ya is solar heat absorber, ra is the solar dozen, sa is alien force absorber, va is kuntinee, and na is primary force.

Their actions are thus defined in "Kriyaa-saara":

"The ascent of the vimana is by udgamaa shakti. Its descent is by panjaraa-shakti. Solar heat absorbing is by shaktyapakarshinee. Alien force restraining is by parashakty snatcher. Spectacular motion of the vimaana is by the vidyud-dwaadashaka-shakti. All these various activities are by the prime force of the vimana."

Vidyuddwaadashaka is thus explained in "Soudaaminee-kalaa":

"The spectacular motions of the vimaana are of 12 kinds. Their motive forces are also 12. The motions and the forces are, proceeding, shuddering, mounting, descending, circling, speeding, circumambulating, side-wise motion, receding, anti-clockwise motion, remaining motionless, and performing miscellaneous motions."

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Shaktayah-pancha -iti-Narayanaha." Sootra 2.

"Narayana holds that the forces are five only, and not twelve."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Five forces are generated by the yantra or dynamo called Sadyojaata, and they produce all the spectacular motions of the vimana.

Says "Shakti sarvasva":

"The motions of a vimaana are five, Chaalana, Gaalana, Panjaraprerana, Vakraapasarpana, and Spectacular manoeuvring."

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Chitrinyeveti sphotaayanah." Sootra 3.

Sphotaayana holds that chitrinee is the sole shakti.

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Sphotaayana declares that the force called chitrinee shakti is the one which enables the vimana to perform spectacular manoeuvres.

p. 30

[paragraph continues] "Shakti-sarvasva" says that both from experience and scientific knowledge Sphotaayana propounds the view that 32 various kinds of motions of the vimaana are solely by the power of Chitrinee-shakti.

"Kriyaa-saara " also states that Chitrinee force of the 17th quality is solely responsible for the 32 types of aeronautical motions.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Tadantarbhaaavaat Saptaiveti" Sootra 4.

"The shaktis are 7 only, and include all others"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Out of the five forces produced by the sadyojaata mechanism, panjaraa shakti is the most important. The other shaktis are incidental to it, just as sparks are incidental to fire. Chaalana and other motions may therefore be said to result from panjaraa shakti.

Says "Shaktibeeja": "It is by the panjaraa shakti generated by sadyojaata yantra that the chalana and other shaktis branch out. "

"Shakti kousthubha" also says, "From the panjaraa shakti produced by sadyojaata, emanate the chaalama and other 4 shaktis."

Thus since the other shaktis branch out from panjaraa shakti, they may be said to be in essence identical with it. That panjaraa and chitrinee are included in the seven shaktis which have been enumerated by Maharshi Bharadwaaja. Hence there cannot be said to be any conflict of opinions. Some even hold the view that each one of the seven shaktis is capable of producing all the 32 motions of the vimaana. But since each of the several motions of the plane is definitely ascribed to a particular kind of force, it would be incorrect to hold that one force could be responsible for the whole gamut of motions. Any attempt to give practical effect to such a theory would prove disastrous. Therefore the right conclusion is that the seven forces are the true cause of the 32 kinds of aerial activities of the vimaana.


vril5.jpg
Vril 5269 viewsMaharshi Bharadwaaja's
VYMAANIKA SHAASTRA
FIRST CHAPTER
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

I make obeisance to the Divine Being, who is visible on the crest of the Vedas, who is the fountain of eternal bliss, and whose abode is reached by Vimaanas or Aeroplanes. Having studied the Shaastraas or sciences propounded by previous men of science to the best of my ability, for the benefit of mankind, I shall deal with the science of Aeronautics, which is the essence of the Vedas, which will be a source of joy and benefit to humanity, which will facilitate comfortable travel in the sky from world to world, in eight chapters, consisting of 100 topics, in 500 sutras or cryptic pronouncements.

Commentary by Bodhaananda:

I bow to God Mahadeva and His Consort, to Saraswathi Goddess of learning, to Ganapathy guardian of benevolent efforts, and to my venerable preceptor, and I bow to Maharshi Bharadwaaja. In Addition to my own knowledge of Logic, I have five times turned over Vaalmeeki's Mathematics, 'Paribhaashaa Chandrikaa,' and 'Naamaarthhakalpaka,' and aided by their authority, I, Swaamy Bodhaananda, for the easy understanding of the young, have written this 'Bodhananda Vritti,' to elucidate Maharshi Bharadwaaja's concisely worded text on Aeronautics.

At the outset Maharshi Bharadwaaja invokes God in the traditional manner for the successful commencement, progress, and completion of his great literary work. Attaining mastery over the Vedas by Divine Grace, and studying the works of earlier Aachaaryaas or preceptors, he has churned the Vedic lore, and extracting the, cream, presented it to mankind for reaping untold benefits, in the work named 'Yantrasarvasva.' In the fortieth chapter therein he deals with the science of Aeronautics, explaining the construction and use of many kinds of aeroplanes, in 8 chapters, containing 100 subject heads, comprising 500 sutras or oracular pronouncements.

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In the first stanza the reference is to the teaching of the sacred works, "Uttara-taapaneeya," 'Shaibya-prasna,' 'Kaataka,' and 'Maandookya,' that the symbolic letter, 'Om,' leads to the knowledge of God and Salvation. Bharadwaaja implies that the Vimaana or aeroplane constructed according to Vymaanika Shaastra, may enable men to reach God, and enjoy the benefits of His Divine abode.

The previous Aachaaryaas Bharadwaaja refers to are named by Vishwanaatha as,--Naaraayana, Shownaka, Garga, Vaachaspathi, Chaakraayani and Dhundinaatha, venerable authors of "Vimaana-Chandrikaa", "Vyomayaana-Tantra," "Yantra-Kalpa", "Yaana-Bindu," "Kheta-yaana Pradeepikaa," and "Vyomayaana-Arkaprakaasha," respectively.

Bharadwaaja thus defines the word Vimaana:

☞ Vega-Saamyaat Vimaano Andajaanaam. Sootra 1.

"Owing to similarity of speed with birds, it is named Vimaana."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The word "andaja" means "egg-born", and includes eagles and other birds which fly by their own volition. The Vimaana is a vehicle which flies in the sky with speed comparable with birds.

Lallachaarya says, "That which can fly in the sky with speed equal to that of birds, is called Vimaana."

Aachaarya Naaraayana says,

"That which can speed on earth, on water, through air, by its own power, like a bird, is a "Vimaana."

Shankha says, "Experts in the science of aeronautics say, "That which can fly through air from one place to another is a Vimaana"

And Vishwambhara says, "Experts say that that which can fly through air from one country to another country, from one island to another island, and from one world to another world, is a "Vimaana"."

Having thus defined the name of the Vimaana, the sage proceeds to describe its details.

☞ Rahasyagnyodhikaaree. Sootra 2.

"The pilot is one who knows the secrets."

Bodhaananda: Scientists say that there are 32 secrets of the working of the Vimaana. A pilot should acquaint himself thoroughly with them before

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he can be deemed competent to handle the aeroplane. He must know the structure of the aeroplane, know the means of its take off and ascent to the sky, know how to drive it and how to halt it when necessary, how to manoeuvre it and make it perform spectacular feats in the sky without crashing. Those secrets are given in "Rahasya-Lahari" and other works, by Lalla and other masters, and are described thus:

"The pilot should have had training in maantrica and taantrica, kritaka and antaraalaka, goodha or hidden, drishya and adrishya or seen and unseen, paroksha and aparoksha, contraction and expansion, changing shape, look frightening, look pleasing, become luminous or enveloped in darkness, deluge or pralaya, vimukha, taara, stun by thunderous din, jump, move zig-zag like serpent, chaapala, face all sides, hear distant sounds, take pictures, know enemy manoeuvres, know direction of enemy approach, stabdhaka or paralyse, and karshana or exercise magnetic pull.

These 32 secrets the pilot should learn from competent preceptors, and only such a person is fit to be entrusted with an aeroplane, and not others.

They are explained thus by Siddhanaatha:

1. Maantrika; As prescribed in "Mantraadhikaara," by invoking the mantras of Chhinnamasta, Bhairavee, Veginee, Siddhaamba, acquire the powers of ghutikaa, paadukaa, visible and invisible and other mantraas with potent herbs and efficacious oils, and Bhuvaneswaree Mantra which confers spiritual and mesmeric powers, to construct aeroplanes, which don't break cannot be cut, cannot be burnt, and cannot be destroyed.

2. Taantrika: By acquiring Mahaamaaya, Shambara, and other taantric powers, to endow the plane with those powers.

3. Kritaka: By study of architects like Vishwakarma, Chhaayaaparusha, Mann, Maya and others, to construct aeroplanes of various patterns.

4. Antaraala: In the wind-swept atmospheric region of the sky, in the clash at the borders of mighty currents, an inadvertent plane is likely to be smashed to pieces. But by getting warned of the approach of such danger spots, the plane could be halted and steered with care.

5. Goodha: As explained in 'Vaayutatva-Prakarana', by harnessing the powers, Yaasaa, Viyaasaa, Prayaasaa in the 8th atmospheric layer covering the earth, to attract the dark content of the solar ray, and use it to hide the Vimaana from the enemy.

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6. Drishya: By collision of the electric power and wind power in the atmosphere, a glow is created, whose reflection is to be caught in the Vishwa-Kriyaa-darapana or mirror at the front of the Vimana, and by its manipulation produce a Maaya-Vimaana or camouflaged Vimana.

7. Adrishya: According to "Shaktitantra", by means of the Vynarathya Vikarana and other powers in the heart centre of the solar mass, attract the force of the ethereal flow in the sky, and mingle it with the balaahaavikarana shakti in the aerial globe, producing thereby a white cover, which will make the Vimana invisible.

8. Paroksha: According to "Meghotpatthi-prakarana," or the science of the birth of clouds, by entering the second of the summer cloud layers, and attracting the power therein with the shaktyaakarshana darpana or force-attraction mirror in the Vimana, and applying it to the parivesha or halo of the Vimaana, a paralysing force is generated, and opposing Vimaanas are paralysed and put out of action.

9. Aparoksha: According to 'Shakti-tantra,' by projection of the Rohinee beam of light, things in front of the Vimaana are made visible.

10. Sankocha, or Contraction: As prescribed in the Yantraangopasamhaara section, when the Vimaana is flying at speed with fully extended wings, and there is danger ahead, turning the 7th switch in the Vimana, its parts can be made to contract.

11. Vistrita: According to 'Akaashatantra', when the Vimana is in the central air flood in the third and first regions of the sky, by turning the switch in the 11th section of plane, it becomes expanded suitably according to "Vaalmeeki Ganita."

12. Viroopa Karana: As stated in "Dhooma Prakarana", by producing the 32nd kind of smoke through the mechanism, and charging it with the light of the heat waves in the sky, and projecting it through the padmaka chakra tube to the bhyravee oil-smeared Vyroopya-darpana at the top of the Vimaana, and whirling with 132nd type of speed, a very fierce and terrifying shape of the Vimana will emerge, causing utter fright to onlookers.

13. Roopaantara: As stated in "Tylaprakarana," by preparing griddhrajihwaa, kumbhinee, and kaakajangha oils and anointing the distorting mirror in the Vimaana with them, applying to it the 19th kind of smoker

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and charging with the kuntinee shakti in the Vimana, shapes like lion, tiger, rhinoceros, serpent, mountain, river will appear and amaze observers and confuse them.

14. Suroopa: By attracting the 13 kinds of Karaka force mentioned in "Karaka prakarana" applying snow-surcharged air and projecting it through the air conveying tube to the pushpinee-pinjula mirrors in the front right side of the Vimana, and focusing on it the suragha beam, a heavenly damsel bedecked with flowers and jewels will appear to onlookers of the Vimana.

15. Jyotirbhaava: As stated in "Amshubodhinee," out of Samgnaana and other 16 digits of the solar glow, by attracting the 12th to the 16th digits and focusing them on the air force in the Mayookha section in the fourth pathway in the sky, and similarly by attracting the force of the etherial glow and mingling it with the glow in the 7th layer of air mass, and then by projecting both these forces through the 5 tubes in the Vimana on to the section of the guhaa-garbha mirror, a rich glow like the morning glow of the sun will be produced.

16. Tamomaya: As described in "Darpana Prakarana," by means of the dark force mirror, capture the force of darkness, pass it through the Thamo-Yantra in the north-west side of the Vimana, and by turning a switch produce at noon-day the utter darkness of the night of the new-moon.

17. Pralaya: As described in the magic book of destruction, attract the 5 kinds of smoke through the tube of the contracting machine in the front part of the Vimana, and merge it in the cloud-smoke mentioned in "Shadgarbha Viveka", and pushing it by electric force through the five-limbed aerial tube, destroy everything as in a cataclysm.

18. Vimukha: As mentioned in "Rig-hridaya", by projecting the force of Kubera, Vimukha and Vyshawaanara poison powder through the third tube of the roudree mirror and turning the switch of the air mechanism, produce wholesale insensibility and coma.

19. Taara: By mixing with etherial force 10 parts of air forte, 7 parts of water force, and 16 parts of solar glow, and projecting it by means of the star-faced mirror through the frontal tube of the Vimana; the appearance of a star-spangled sky is created.

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20. Mahaashabda Vimohana: By concentrating the air force in the seven tubes of the Vimana, and turning the switch, produce, as stated in "Shabda prakaashikaa" a crescendo of thunderous din, which stuns people, and makes them quake with fear and become insensible.

21. Langhana: As stated in "Vaayu tattva prakarana" When crossing from one air stream into another, the Vimana faces the baadaba glow of the sun and catches fire. In order to prevent that, the electric force and air force in the Vimana should be conjoined and centred in the life-centre of the Vimana, and by turning the switch, the Vimana will leap into safety.

22. Saarpa-Gamana: By attracting the dandavaktra and other seven forces of air, and joining with solar rays, passing it through the zig-zagging centre of the Vimana, and turning the switch, the Vimana will have a zig-zagging motion like a serpent.

23. Chaapala: On sighting an enemy plane, by turning the switch in the force centre in the middle section of the Vimana, a 4087 revolutions an hour atmospheric wave speed will be generated, and shake up the enemy plane.

24. Sarvatomukha: When a formation of enemy planes comes to attack one's Vimana, by turning the switch at the crown of the Vimana, make it revolve with agility and face all sides.

25. Parashabda Graahaka: As explained in "Sowdaaminee kalaa" or science of electronics, by means of the sound capturing yantra in the Vimana, to hear the talks and sounds in enemy planes flying in the sky.

26. Roopaakarshana: By means of the photographic yantra in the Vimana to obtain a television view of things inside an enemy plane.

27. Kriyaagrahana: By turning the key at the bottom of the Vimana, a white cloth is made to appear. By electrifying the three acids in the north-east part of the Vimana, and subjecting them to the 7 kinds of solar rays, and passing the resultant force into the tube of the Thrisheersha mirror and making the cloth screen face the mirror, and switching on the upper key, all the activities going on down below on the ground, will be projected on the screen.

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28. Dikpradarshana: Turning the key at the front of the Vimana the dishaampati yantra will show the direction from which the enemy plane is approaching.

29. Aakaashaakaara: According to "Aakaasha-tantra", by mixing black mica solution with neem and bhoonaaga decoctions and smearing the solution on the outer body of the Vimana made of mica plates, and exposing to solar rays, the plane will look like the sky and become indistinguishable.

30. Jalada roopa: Mixing pomegranate juice, bilva or bael oil, copper-salt, kitchen smoke, granthika or gugul liquid, mustard powder, and fish scale decoctions, and adding sea-shell and rock-salt powder, and collecting smoke of the same solution and spreading it with solar heat enveloping the cover, the Vimana will have the appearance of a cloud.

31. Stabdhaka: By projecting apasmaara poison-fume smoke through the tube on the north side on the Vimana, and discharging it with stambhana-yantra, people in enemy planes will be made unconscious.

32. Karshana: When enemy planes come in strength to destroy one's Vimana, by setting aflame the Jwaalinee shakit in the Vyshwaanara-naala or pipe located at the navel of the plane, and switching the keys of the two wheels to 87 degrees of heat, the burning shakti will envelope the enemy plane and destroy it.

These are the 32 rahasyaas or secrets which should be known by pilots according to Siddhanaatha.

"Maargaadhikaranam " Aerial Routes:

☞ Panchagnyascha. Sootra 3.

"The pilot should know five things."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

As the secrets of aeronautics are indicated in the second sutra, the five atmospheric regions are referred to in the third sutra. According to Shownaka, the regions of the sky are five, named, Rekhaapathha, Mandala, Kakshya, Shakti, and Kendra.

In these 5 atmospheric regions, there are 5,19,800 air ways traversed by Vimanas of the Seven Lokas or worlds, known as Bhooloka, Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, Maholoka, Janoloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka.

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Dhundinaatha and "Vaalmeeki Ganita" state that Rekha has 7,03,00,800 air routes, Mandala has 20,08,00200 air routes, Kakshya has 2,09,00,300 air routes, Shakti has 10,01,300 air routes, and Kendra has 30,08,200 air routes.

According to "Vaalmeeki Ganita" in the Rekhaapathha region, sections 1 to 4 are suitable for the passage of the Vimanas of this Bhooloka. In the Mandala region sections 3 to 5 are suitable for Vimanas of Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, and Maholoka dwellers. For the Janoloka Vimanas sections 2 to 5 in the Kakshya region are suitable. Section 1 to 6 in the Shakti region are suitable for the Vimanas of Tapoloka. For the dwellers of Bramhaloka sections 3 to 11 in the Kendra region are suitable, according to shaastras like "Vaalmeeki Ganita" and others.

Maharashi Bharadwaaja:

☞ Aavartaascha. Sootra 4.

"Whirl-Pools"

Aavartaas or aerial whirlpools are innumerable in the above regions. Of them the whirlpools in the routes of Vimanas are five. In the Rekhapathha there occurs "Shaktyaavarta" or whirlpool of energy. In Mandala-pathha there occurs the whirlpool of winds. In Kakshyaa-pathha there occurs Kiranaavarta or whirlpool from solar rays. In Shakti-pathha there occurs shytyaavarta or whirlpool of cold-currents. And in Kendra-pathha there occurs gharshanaavartha or whirl-pool by collision. Such whirlpools are destructive of Vimanas, and have to be guarded against.

The pilot should know these five sources of danger, and learn to steer clear of them to safety.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ Angaanyekatrimsat. Sootra 5.

"The parts are thirty one"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Just as the human body, if it is complete in all its limbs, is best able to accomplish things, the Vimana, if it is complete in all its parts, will be capable of functioning efficiently. From the location of the Vishwakriyaadarpana

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[paragraph continues] 31 locations of Vimana components are mentioned.

According to "Chaayaapurusha Shaastra" they are:

1. Vishwakriyaadarpana or mirror of outside views.

2. Shaktyaakarshana or energy attracting mirror.

3. Parivesha mechanism above the hood of the Vimana.

4. Angopasamhaara yantra or folding up yantra at the 7th bindukeelaka.

5. Vistritakriyaa or opening out yantra location in the middle of the 11th section.

6. Vyroopya darpana and

7. Padmachakramukha at the shirobhaaga or crest of the Vimana.

8. The Kuntinee-shakti mechanism is to be in the neck of the Vimana.

9. Pushpinee and Pinjulaa Mirrors are to be in the right side of the centre.

10. At the front of the left side are to be located the Naalapanchaka or 5 pipes.

11. Guhaagarbha mirror yantra is to be in the front part of the stomach of the plane.

12. Thamoyantra at the north western side.

13. Pancha-vaataskandha-naala on the western centre.

14. Rowdree mirror.

15. Vaataskandha keelaka at the bottom centre.

16. Shaktisthaana at the front and right sides.

17. Shabda-kendra-mukha at the left side.

18. Vidyuddwaadashaka at the north-east side.

19. Praanakundala at the moola of the Vimana.

20. Shaktyudgama at the navel of the Vimana.

21. Vakraprasaarana at the side of Vimanaadhaara.

22. Shaktipanjara in the central portion.

23. Shirahkeelaka at the head of the Vimana.

24. Shabdaakarshaka yantra at the shoulder.

25. Pata-prasaarana at the bottom centre.

26. Dishaampati yantra at the left front.

27. Pattikaabhraka at the centre of the hood of the Vimana.

28. Solar power attractor at the top of the Vimana.

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29. Apasmaara or poison gas at the sandhi-naala mukha or junction tube front.

30. Sthambhana yantra at the bottom.

31. Vyshwaanara-naala at the navel centre.

This is the placing of the 31 components of the Vimana.



"Vasthraadhikaranam ": On Clothing

Maharashi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Yantu-praavaraneeyow prithak prithak ritubhedaat." Sootra 6.

"The clothing should be different for different seasons."

The sootra defines the clothing which is to be provided to the pilot in accordance with different seasonal conditions. The impact of the sun's myriad rays on the revolving earth causes seasonal climatic changes. Their effects on human life are either wholesome or unwholesome, as the case may be. The latter cause cramps, drain blood, and denude the body of fat, flesh, and other ingredients. The evil forces of the seasons are reckoned as 25, and affect the skin, bone, flesh, fat, muscles, nerves, joints and other parts of the pilots' body. The clothing provided to them should be such as to safeguard against such effects, and maintain their efficiency.

According to "Pata-samskaara Ratnaakara", silk, cotton, moss, hair, mica, leather, are to be purified by 25 processes, washed with mica-saturated water, and spun into yarn as prescribed by Gaalava. Then fibres from the ketaki flower palm, arka or swallow wort or madar, sun flower tree, cocoanut and jute, should each be purified 8 times as prescribed and by 19 processes, spun into yarn, and woven into cloth. Then the cloth should be soaked in the oils of linseed, tulasi or basil, goose-berry, shamee or acacia suma, bael, and mustard, and dried in the sun 5 times daily for 7 days. Then yellow ochre, lac, tamarind, honey and gingelly manure and mica in equal parts and yena-kshaara salt, put in a crucible vessel, placed in koorma furnace, and boiled with the aid of 3 faced bellows. 8 seers of linseed juice should be added to it. Bees wax, mica, shinjeera, vajra, borax, and ashoka fruit should be boiled, and their oil mixed with the other composition, and boiled in garbhataapana yantra. Then the cloth should be soaked in that decoction and dried 5 times. With this material, fashioning the apparel and

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clothes of the pilots handsomely, according to the types of the cloth and requirements the crew, as prescribed by Agnimitra, and handing it to them to wear, they should be conferred benediction, given a protective amulet and then sent out with cheers. It will ward off evils, promote fitness of body and health of mind, and improve their strength, energy, and competence.



Aahaaraadhikaranam: On Food

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Aahaarah Kalpabhedaat" Sootra 7.

"Food according to Seasons."

Bodhaananda Vrritti:

As stated in Kalpa Sootra, the food of the pilots is of three kinds, according to the seasons. "Ashana-Kalpa" or "Principles of Diet", says--"During the spring and summer months, the pilot's food should consist of buffalo-milk among liquids, among grains aadhaka or tuvar-dhal, and among flesh, the flesh of sheep.

In the 4 months of rains and autumn, cow's milk among liquids, wheat and black-gram among grains, and flesh of cocks and hens.

In the 4 months of winter and snow, goat's-milk, yava and black-gram among grains, and flesh of sparrows.

For pilots belonging to the three Dwija castes of Braahmin, Kshatriya and Vyshya, the food will not include flesh.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Visha Naashas Tribhyaha" Sootra 8.

"The three Varieties ward off seasonal evil effects"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

The 25 kinds of poisonous effects of the seasons are warded off by alteration in the food so as to suit the seasonal conditions.

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"Vishanirnaya-adhikara" states,--

The seasons are each differently conditioned by the changes in the watery forces in the sky. The 101 forces in the aerial atmosphere, colliding with the 1/16th force in the watery sky in the seventh region, at the sineevaalee and kuhoo yogas or full-moon and new-moon conjunctions, produce maleficent and beneficent effects. The beneficent forces are 7,58,00,700 in number, and the maleficent forces also are of the same number, according to "Vaalmeeki Ganita". The beneficent effects are during the full moon period, and the maleficent effects during the new-moon period. 25 maleficent poisonous forces known as Bhedinee, tend to paralyse the pilots' physical effeciency. That is avoided by altering their food according to seasons. So says Sage Shaataatapa.

By such adjustment the pilots' physical fitness will be maintained.

Maharashi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Tat Kaalaanusaaraat iti" Sootra 9.

"That at set times"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having defined the seasonal types of food, the meal times are now defined. According to Shownaka, the times for taking meals are prescribed as follows: Family men should take food twice a day, or once a day. Ascetics should take food once a day. Others can take food four times a day. Air pilots should take food 5 times a day. And yogis may take as many times as they like.

According to "Lalla-kaarika" or "Diet Rules" by Lalla,

Food should be taken at the end of the 2nd yaama-(yaama=3 hours) in the day time, and at the end of the 1st yaama in the night. That is for family men. If they take only one meal a day, it should be during the 3rd and 4th yaamas. Sanyaasis or ascetics who eat only once a day should dine as above. For the labouring classes the times are thrice during day time, and once in the night. For pilots of Vimanas the meals are thrice during day time, and twice at night.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Tadabhaavay Sathva-Golovaa" Sootra 10.

"If unavailable, then vitamin pills or food-balls"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

If the prescribed food-stuffs are not available for use during their flights, then essence extracts made by proper cooking with admixture of spices and condiments into potable and eatable form, or food balls-made out of them should be supplied to the pilots for consumption on flights.

Says "Ashana kalpa" or "Food manual",

"There are 5 kinds of food, that are nutritious and wholesome; cooked rice or grain, gruel, cooked flour, baked flat bread, and preparations made out of essence-extracts from food materials. The last named are superior to all the others".

"Paakasarvasva" or "Art of cooking" observes,

"Removing the husk and other non-food parts from it by machines, the grain should be made into flour and cooked in a suitable vessel and when it has reached the 8th degree of reduction, add essences, sweets, condiments, and ghee, and prepare food-balls, having nice flavour and delicious taste, and being nourishing to the body.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Phala Moola Kanda Saarovaa." Sootra 11.

"Or essence of fruits, roots, and bulbs."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In this sootra it is stated that preparations made from edible roots, potato and other bulbous vegetables, and from fruits are also suitable as food.

"Ashana-Kalpa" says,

If food made of grains is not available, that from roots, bulbs, and fruits may by used as food, in the form of flour, sugarcandy, manjoosha or jaggery, honey, milk, ghee, oily-products, and roots and berries which

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contain sweet, salt, pungent, acrid, and alkaline tastes. Such roots are said to be 56 in number. They should be purified, powdered, and duly cooked, and made into balls, and given out for use as food.

Similarly the bulbous vegetables which are of 16 kinds, and fruits which are of 32 kinds, and food prepared out of them are excellent food, Food from roots develops brain, nourishes the body, strengthens the bones, and gives virility. Food from bulbs promotes brilliance, and bodily vigour, and strengthens the life current. Food from fruits nourishes mind, intelligence, blood, flesh, and vital liquids. Therefore these alternatives are recommended for pilots of Vimanas.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Apicha Trinaadeenam." Sootra 12.

"Even grasses, herbs and shrubs."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

This sootra indicates that even grasses, herbage, and creepers, could be made to yield food.

Says "Ashana-Kalpa",

Like roots, bulbs and fruits, grasses, shrubs and herbs, provide good food for men. Six kinds of doorva grass, 6 kinds of munja hemp, 6 kinds of darbha or long grass, 6 kinds of shoundeera, and 6 kinds of Ashwakarna or sal, or mimordica charantia, Shatamoolee of 3 kinds, Kaaruvellee; Chandravellee, Madhuvellee, Varchulee, Makutee vellee, sugandhaa, and sooryavellee may be made to yield good food, nutritious and bracing.

Selected by men who know them well, these vegetation, including their flowers, shoots, and leaves, by proper cleaning and cooking, may be made to yield solid or liquid food, which will serve as satisfactory substitute food for pilots of Vimanas. And Somavallee or moon-plant, Chakrikaa, Rasavallikaa, Kooshmandavallee, Ikshuvallee, Pishtavallaree, Sooryakaanta, Chandrakaanta, Meghanaada, Punarnava, Avantee, Vaastu, Matsyaakshee, and Rukma and others, provide good bases for lasting food, duly mixed with sweets and condiments.

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Lohaadhikaranam: Metals
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

"Athha Yaana Lohaani." Sootra 13.

"Next, the Metals for aeroplanes"

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having dealt with clothing and food for pilots, now the metals suitable for aeroplanes are being dealt with.

Says Shounaka:

There are 3 kinds of metals named somaka, soundaalika, and mourthwika. By mixing them, 16 kinds of heat-absorbing metals are produced.

Their names are ushnambhara, ushnapaa, ushnahana, raajaamlatrit, veerahaa, panchaghna, agnitrit, bhaarahana, sheetahana, garalaghna, amlahana, vishambhara, vishalyakrit, vijamitra and Vaatamitra etc.

"Maanibhadra Kaarika," or "Dictas of Manibhadra," Says, "Metals which are light, and are suitable for producing aeroplanes are 16. They are heat absorbing, and should be used in the manufacture of aeroplanes."

Saamba also says that the 16 metals formed by mixing the root metals, soma, soundaala and mourthwika, are non-heat-conductors and are useful for Vimanas. Their characteristics are now examined.

In the 7th layer of the earth, in the third mine therein, metals of the Soma series are found. They are of 38 kinds. Among them there are three from which Ooshmalohas or heat resisting metals are to be extracted. "Lohatantra" or "Science of Metals" also says that in the 3rd section of the 7th layer of the earth, Metals of Souma class, possessed of 5 special qualities, are called "beejalohas" or "root-metals".

There are 3000 metal bearing layers within the earth. Of them 1300 layers contain the better quality. In the 7th layer metals are of 27 types. The 3rd type of metals are of five-fold qualities, and are known as root metals. The origin of metals of the Soma class is thus described in "Lohakalpa.":

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"The gravity of the centre of the earth, the gravity of global earth, the solar flood, the air force, the force emanating from the planets and stars, the sun's and moon's gravitational forces, and the gravitational force of the Universe, all together enter the layers of the earth in the proportion of 3, 8, 11, 5, 2, 6, 4, 9, and, aided by the heat and moisture therein, cause the origin of metals, of various varieties, grades and qualities."

The Souma group of metals are named, as per sage Atri, in "Naamaartha Kalpa". "Souma, Sowmyaka, Soundaasya, Soma, Panchaanana, Praanana, Shankha, Kapila are the names of the Souma metals, with distinct qualities indicated by their names."

The name "Souma" consists of sounds, s, on, ma, and ha, "Paribhaasha Chandrika" and "Vishwambhara Kaarikaa" state, "The oceanic force and solar force instil 4 kinds of forces into root metals. The sum total of the forces are said, according to "Vaalmeeki Ganitha" to number 1, 67, 768. Some of these forces are indicated by the sound "s" Some of the forces emanating from the sun and the elements are indicated by the sound "ou". Similarly other concerned forces are indicated by the letters "ma" and "ha".

The Varuna and Soorya force contents of all root metals are of four groups. In each group the force content is said to be 1, 67, 768. Of the Koorma and Kashyapa forces of Vaaruna group, the 67th from Ooshaa koorma, and the 85th Kaashyapa force, called "Kaala", are indicated by the letter "Sa".

Of the solar group of forces, maartaanda and bhoota 71st, and the ruchika force 160 are indicated by the sound "ra". Similarly, of the forces of sun and stars in aditi, the 9th called "Sundaa", and the stellar force 101 called "Bhowma" are indicated by the letter "Ma". And in the dhruva varga, soma and baadaba forces, 109 and 14 respectively, are indicated by the visarga sound "ha".

The four forces working inside the earth, by flux of time mature into the Souma type metal.

In Soundaala metal, the 11th force, dhanadaa, in Koorma is indicated by letter "sa". The 110th Kaashyapee force, rook, is indicated by the sound

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[paragraph continues] "ow". The sun's 100 powered dravamukhee shakti, and bhoota-shakti known as anvee 700 powered, are together indicated by the anuswaara sound "m". The sun's kaantaa shakti 49, and the stars' 25 shaktis, varchaa, are indicated by the letter "da". Similarly the soma forces in dhruva varga, is indicated by the long "aa" in "daa". The moon's 364 ujwalaa and baadabaa's 500 known as kaala are indicated by the letter "la".

That is "Soundaala".

Regarding the third, "Mourtwika", Koormashakti, paarthiva 1300, is indicated by the letter "ma". Kaasyapa shakti, kaalima 2001, is indicated by the sound "ow". Maartaanda shakti, laaghava 260, is indicated by the sound "r": bhootashakti, vaarchulee 37, by the letter "tha": stellar force, rukshmaka 1063, is indicated by the letter "va". Arkashakti, varuna 113, is indicated by the sound "e": soma force rijukaa 8009, and pooshnikaa 1012, are indicated. by the letter, "ka".



Lohashuddhyadhikaranam: Purification of Metals.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Tatchhuddhir yathaa shodhanaadhikaaray." Sootra 14.

"Their purification is as per shodhanaadhikaara".

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Taking soma metal first, it should be filled in a wide-brimmed vessel and adding jambeera or citron juice, likucha or lime juice, vyaaghra or castor, chinchaa or tamarind, and jamboo or rose apple juices, it should be boiled to 27th degree of heat for a day. Then taking it out and washing it, it should be boiled in 5 kinds of oils, 4 kinds of acids, and 7 kinds of decoctions.

They are named in "Samskaara Darpana":

Gunjaa or wild liquorice, Kanjala, castor, kunjara, and karanja or Indian beach oils, praana-kshara, viranchi, kanchuki, and khura acids, and hingoo or asafoetida, parpata, ghontikaaa, jataa-maamsee or spikenard, white gourd or Vidaaraanginee, and matsyaakshee decoctions.

That is the process of purification of soma metal.

The purification of Soundaala metal is like that of soma with regard to boiling in the cauldron, but the process of purification is with 6 acids, 7 oils, and 5 decoctions. They are, according to Samskaara Darpana."--

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Ingaala or, ingudee, gouree or reddish herb, couries, grapes, rata, aapya, and ulbana oils, ankola, mushti, shankha, bhallaataka, kaakola, and virancha acids, and kuluththa or horsegram, nishpaava, sarshapa or mustard, aadhaka, and wheat decoctions or gruels.

Mourthweeka metal also should be baked like soundaala, and then should be boiled with shivaari oil, kudupa acid and vishambharee leather decoction.

Having defined the root-metals and their purification, we next consider the casting of Ooshmapaa loha.

VRil~0.jpg
Vril 347 viewsFIFTH CHAPTER


Yantraadhikaranam: Yantras: Machinery.
Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Athha Upayantraani." Sootra 1.

"The Mechanical Contrivances."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having described the forces or energies required for the various functions of the vimaana, now the mechanisms necessary for these activities are described.

"Kriyaa-saara" says:

"As stated by the eminent Bharadwaaja in "Yantrasarvasva", the mechanical equipments necessary for the vimaana are 32. They are vishwakriyaadarsa or universal reflecting mirror, shaktyaakarshana yantra or force absorbing machine, pariveshakriyaayantra or halo-producing machine, angopasamhara yantra or machine for folding up or contracting its parts, vistrutakriyaa yantra, or expanding yantra, vyroopyadarpana or fantastic mirror, padmachakra-mukha, kuntinee shakti yantra and pushpinee shakti yantra, pinjula mirror, naalapanchaka and guhaa-garbhabhidha yantras, tamo-yantra or darkness spreading machine, pancha vaataskandhanaala, roudree mirror, vaataskandha naalakcelaka, vidyudyantra or electric generator, and shabdakendra mukha, vidyuddwaadashaka, praanakundalinee, shaktyudgama, vakraprasaarana, and shaktipanjara keelaka, shirah-keelaka and shabdaakarshana, pataprasaaranayantra, dishaampati yantra, pattikaabhraka yantra, suryashaktyapakarshana yantra or collector of solar energy, apasmaaradhooma prasaarana or ejector of poisonous fumes, stambhana yantra, and vyshwaanara naalayantra."

They are thus described in "yantrasarvasva," chapter 7, by the illustrious Maharshi Bharadwaaja.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

☞ "Athopayantraani." Sootra 1.

"Subsidiary Yantras."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Prepare a square or circular base of 9 inches width with wood and glass, mark its centre, and from about an inch and half thereof draw lines to the edge in the 8 directions, fix 2 hinges in each of the lines in order to open and shut. In the centre erect a 6 inch pivot and four tubes, made of vishvodara metal, equipped with hinges and bands of iron, copper, brass or lead, and attach to the pegs in the lines in the several directions. The whole is to be covered.

Prepare a mirror of perfect finish and fix it to the danda or pivot. At the base of the pivot an electric yantra should be fixed. Crystal or glass beads should be fixed at the base, middle, and end of the pivot or by its side. The circular or goblet shaped mirror for attracting solar rays should be fixed at the foot of the pivot. To the west of it the image-reflector should be placed. Its operation is as follows:

First the pivot or pole should be stretched by moving the keelee or switch. The observation mirror should be fixed at its base. A vessel with mercury should be fixed at its bottom. In it a crystal bead with hole should be placed. Through the hole in the chemically purified bead, sensitive wires should be passed and attached to the end beads in various directions. At the middle of the pole, mustard cleaned solar mirror should be fixed. At the foot of the pole a vessel should be placed with liquid ruchaka salt. A crystal should be fixed in it with hinge and wiring. In the bottom centre should be placed a goblet-like circular mirror for attracting solar rays. To the west of it a reflecting mechanism should be placed. To the east of the liquid salt vessel, the electric generator should be placed and the wiring of the crystal attached to it. The current from both the yantras should be passed to the crystal in the liquid ruchaka salt vessel. Eight parts of sun-power in the solar reflector and 12 parts of electric power should be passed through the crystal into the mercury and on to the universal reflecting mirror. And then that mirror should be focussed in the direction of the region which has to be photographed. The image which appears in the facing lens will then be reflected

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through the crystal in the liquid salt solution. The picture which will appear in the mirror will be true to life, and enable the pilot to realise the conditions of the concerned region, and he can take appropriate action to ward off danger and inflict damage on the enemy.

Next Shaktyaakarshana yantra:

"Yantra sarvasva" says, "Owing to the etherial waves and raging winds of the upper regions in accordance with die seasons, evil forces are generated which tend to destroy the vimaana. The Shaktyaakarshana yantra in the vimaana is meant to subdue those forces and render them harmless."

Narayana also says:

"Three fierce forces arise from the fierce winds and ethereal waves, and cruse destruction of the plane. The shalayaakarshana yantra by its superior force subdues them and ensures safety of the vimaana."

Its construction is as follows:

The base is to be 3 feet long and 2 feet wide, and made of krouncha metal. A 12 inch tall 3 inch wide pole or peg made of 27th kind of glass should be fixed in its middle. To the east of it, as also to the west, 3 centres should be marked on each side. To the north and south also 2 centres should be marked on each side. At each centre screw-bolts should be fixed. Then tubes made of the 107th glass, with cleaned wiring should be fixed. A goblet shaped 15 inch sized glass vessel should be fixed on the base of the central peg. A 1 foot circular glass ball with three holes should be fixed in the main centre. A triangular shaped 1 foot sized mirror made of Aadarsha glass should be fixed on the 3rd kendra. Two circular rods made of magnetic metal and copper should be fixed on the glass ball so as to cause friction when they revolve. To the west of it a globular ball made of vaatapaa glass with a wide open mouth should be fixed. Then a vessel made of shaktipaa glass, narrow at bottom, round in the middle, with narrow neck, and open mouth with 5 beaks should be fixed on the middle bolt. Similarly on the end bolt should be placed a vessel with sulphuric acid (bhraajaswad-draavaka). On the pegs on southern side 3 interlocked wheels should be fixed. On the north side liquefied mixture of load-stone, mercury, mica, and serpent-slough should be placed. And crystals should be placed at the requisite centres.

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"Maniratnaakara" says that the shaktyaakarshana yantra should be equipped with 6 crystals known as Bhaaradwaaja, Sanjanika, Sourrya, Pingalaka, Shaktipanjaraka, and Pancha-jyotirgarbha.

The same work mentions where the crystals are to be located. The sourrya mani is to be placed in the vessel at the foot of the central pole, Sanjanika mani should be fixed at the middle of the triangular wall. Pingalaka mani is to be fixed in the wide mouthed glass globe. Bhaaradwaaja mani should be fixed in the opening in the naala-danda. Pancha-jyotirgarbha mani should be fixed in the sulphuric acid vessel, and Shakti-panjaraka mani should be placed in the mixture of magnet, mercury, mica, and serpent-slough. All the five crystals should be equipped with wires passing through glass tubes.

Wires should be passed from the centre in all directions. Then the triple wheels should be set in revolving motion, which will cause the two glass balls inside the glass case, to turn with increasing speed rubbing each other, the resulting friction generating a 100 degree power. That power should be conveyed through wires to the sanjanika mani. Mingling with the force existing therein, that force issues out and should be transmitted through wires to the sourrya mani. On contact of the power therein the force will split into 5 streams. Each of the five power streams should be connected with one of the manis, Bhaaradwaja, Sourrya, Pingala, Pancha-jyotirmani, and Shakti-panjara mani. Mingling with the force in each mani, they form five forces, which are named by Atri maharshi as Raja, Mourtvica, Chundeera, Shoonya, and Garbha-vishodara. These should be passed by wires to the sulphuric acid vessel. They then form 3 forces, named marthanda, rowhinee, and bhadra. Marthanda shakti should be passed into the load-stone, mercury, mica, and serpent slough liquids. The resulting current should then be passed through wires to the wide mouthed glass globular vessel. Solar force pregnant with etherial force should be passed into the Naaladanda, and thence to the vessel with marthanda shakti. The power of the solar rays entering that vessel mingles with the marthanda shakti inside, and the resultant force has to be focussed towards the adverse force of the etherial current which will be thereby nullified and the vimaana will be protected.

Then the Rohinee shakti should be passed through wires into the vessel containing the fivefold load stone, mercury, mica, serpent slough acid,

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and the resulting current passed to the Bhrajasvaddraavaka or luminous acid vessel at the foot of the central pole. Then from the air-route collect the wind-force impregnated solar rays and pass them also into the above vessel. Mingling with the rowhinee shakti therein a super-force will be created which should be passed through the northern pivot, into the rowhinee power vessel. The united force should then he directed against the malefic wind force in the air-route, so that it will tame the evil force and protect the Vimaana.

Then from the suragha tube Bhadraa shakti should be passed into five fold acid vessel. The resulting force should be passed through wired tubes to the foot of the triangular wall, and thence to the pivot on the southern side. The force should then be directed against the evil roudree Force in the air-route. Neutralising that third destructive force in the sky, the vimaana will be allowed smooth passage in the sky.

The Parivesha-kriya yantra:

According to Yantra-sarvasva, by manipulating the five forces a halo is formed around the vimaana, and by drawing the solar rays into contact with it, the rays will speed the aeroplane along the rekhaamaarga or safety line. This is achieved by the operation of the above said yantra.

Narayanacharya also says:

"The mechanism which will manipulate the five forces so as to create a halo round the plane, and attracting the solar rays and contacting them with the plane, make them draw the plane smoothly and speedily along the air route without swerving into danger, is called parivesha-kriyaa yantra or halo-forming mechanism."

Soudaaminee kalaa says, "The forces of ksha, ja, la, bha, and ha, when united attract solar rays. "

According to "Gopatha-kaarika," the forces in shireesha or Indra or lightning, clouds, earth, stars; and sky, are indicated by the letters ksha, ja, la, bha, and ha. By combining those live forces a halo, like that around the solar orb, will be created, and it will have the power or attracting solar rays.

Kriyaa-saara says Shireesha has 2 parts, Clouds have 8 parts, Earth has 5, Stars have 7, and Aakaasha or Sky or Ether has 10. The Aakarshana

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yantra should attract these forces and unify them. Then through the mirror above the vimaana attract solar rays, and apply them to the unified forces,

A halo will be created, and that halo, in combination with the solar rays, will draw the plane through a safe course like a bird held by a string, Its formation is thus explained in Yantra-sarvasva:


"Athha Yantraangaani"
We now deal with the parts of the yantra:

A foot-plate: 23 main centres to be marked on it, with lines connecting the centres. Similar number of revolving screws, wired tubes, pole with three wheels, eight liquids, eight crystals, eight liquid containers, mirror to attract the forces of shireesha, cloud, earth, stars, and aakaasha, five electric mechanism, five barks of trees, copper coated wires, five leathers, hollow screws, revolving screw with wire, vessels for storing the energies, vessel for mixing the energies, smoke-spreading yantra, air-fanning yantra, halo-creating tube made of milky-leather, solar ray attracting mirror tube, tube for collecting the solar rays reflected in the mirror at the top portion of the vimaana, crest-crystal, screw for connecting the solar rays to the vimaana. These are the 23 parts of halo producing yantra.

Its construction is now explained: A wooden base 23 feet square, made of black pippala or holy fig tee. 23 centres enclosed in a case made of 35th type of glass. 23 lines to the centres. Revolving keys to be fixed at the 23 centres. Wired glass tubes should connect one centre with another. A glass pole made of the 37th type of glass, 5 feet long, 1 foot thick in the middle, 18 inches thick at the neck, with a 10 fact wide top, should be fixed as the central pillar, with 3 revolving wheels. Eight acids should be placed in the eight directions from the north-east side. Their names are rubnaka, kraantaja, taarkshya, naaga, gowree, vishandhaya, khadyota and jwalana.

The rubnaka acid is to be placed in the north-east centre, kraantaja in the centre, naaga at the southern centre, gowree at the south-west corner, vishandhaya in the western centre, khadyota at the north-west centre, and jwalana at the northern centre in 8 glass vessels.

The names of the vessels are also given by Shaarikaanaatha: shila, abhra, paara, vyrinchika, vaaluka, asuragranthika, sphutika, and pancha-mrith,

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[paragraph continues] The 8 vessels are made out of these 8 elements by process defined in "Darpana-prakarana."

The rubnaka acid should be filled in shila-darpana vessel; kaarshnya-acid in abhrakaadarsha; kraantaja acid in paaraadarsha vessel; naagadraava in vyrinchi-aadarsha vessel; khadyota acid in sphutikaadarsha; gowree acid should be filled in vaalukaadarsha vessel; vishandhaya acid should be filled in suragrathika vessel; and jwalana acid in panchamrid vessel.

In the 8 acid filled vessels 8 crystals are to be inserted. As mentioned in "Maniprakarana" their names are dhoomaasya, ghanagarbha, shalyaaka, shaarika, tushaasya, somaka, shankha, and amshupa.

Having mentioned their names, we now explain their disposal. Dhoomaasya mani is to be placed in rubna acid vessel. Ghanagarbha mani should be placed in kraantaja acid vessel. Shalyaaka in kaarshni acid vessel. Shaarika in naaga acid vessel. Tushaasya is to be placed in gowree acid, Shankha in jwalana acid; Somaka in vishandhaya acid; and Amshupa mani is to be placed in khadyota acid vessel.

In front of these manis, eight shaktyaakarshana, or energy-imbibing mirrors are to be fixed. Their names according to Bharadwaja are taaraasya, pavanaasya, dhoomaasya, vaarunaasya, jalagarbha, agnimitra, chaayaasya, and bhanukantaka. Their location is as follows: Six inches in front of dhoomasya mani the taaraasya mirror with an iron rod with a switch attached to it should be fixed. Pavanaasya mirror should be fixed similarly in front of ghanagarbha mani. Dhoomaasya mirror should be fixed 6 inches in front of shalyaaka mani. Vaarunaasya mirror should be fixed in front of shaarikaa mani. Jalagarbha mirror should be fixed in front of somaka mani. Agnimitra mirror should be fixed in front of tushaasya mani. Chhayaasya mirror should be fixed in front of shankha mani. And Bhanukantaka mirror should be fixed in front of amshupaa mani.

Then in the western centre should be installed the electric generator with switch. Copper-coated wires covered with live kinds of skins, should be spread all-round, proceeding from the shakti-yantra or electric generator. The names of the five skins, according to "Kriyaa-saara," are rhinoceros, tortoise, dog, rat or hare, and crocodile.

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According to "Twangnirnaya-adhikaara," or chapter on skins, for seats in vimaanas, and, for containing acids, and covering wires, five kinds of skins are mentioned by the learned; skins of rhinoceros, tortoise, dog, rat or hare, and crocodile. These five are to be used for the purposes of cove-ring, and seating. Wires covered with these skins are good conductors of electricity. The bhraamanee keela, or central revolving pole should be fixed in the centre so that when it revolves all the other pivotal centres also revolve. Eight energy storing vessels should be placed in the 9th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 15th 16th and 11th centres. The sammelana vessel or coordinating vessel should be placed in the front of the 23rd centre. To the south of it at the 21st centre the wind blowing mechanism should be fixed.

The Vaata-prasaarana or wind-blowing yantra is thus described: In the central pivot there are to be 5 wheels which will turn with 100 linka revolutions by contact with electric wires: in the east and west two bellows on pivots: two air-containers with 3 mouths or openings: 6 wheels which prevent air-motion: two tubes with switches which will cause spreading: wheels with keys that will induce speed, or full speed, slow, very slow or stop, shaped like a tortoise, having two bharas or parts?, and having a wheel fixed at the top. That is a vaata-prasaarana yantra.

The dhooma-prasaarana yantra or smoke-spreading yantra is as follows: with three openings, 5 satchels inside, 8 wheels, three keelakas or switches, encircled by electric tube, provided with smoke-generating mani or crystal, and equipped with 5 acids, with two churning wheels with keys, with two smoke containers attached to the bellows tube, with smoke-spreading yantra, and it is to be fixed at the 20th centre.

The parivesha-kriyaa naala or halo-creating tube is thus explained. Out of 5 milks from 5 kinds of milk trees, 6 barks of trees, and 2 valkalas (hemp, jute), cloth is fashioned. And that cloth should be used in preparing the parivesha-kriya or halo-forming tube.

It is stated in "Ksheeree-pata kalpa":

In the realm of milk-yielding trees, dugdha-pranaalee, patapaadapa, payodharee, panchavatee, and virinchi are the 5 most suitable for manufacture of milk-cloth useful for vimaanas.

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"Patapradeepikaa" also says, "Among the milk-trees, the best for producing milk-cloth are the following five, payodharee, panchavatee, viranchi, patapaadapa and dugdhapranaalika.

The six bark-trees are godaakanda, kurangaka-niryaasa, aandolikaaviyatsaara, lavika, prishatka, and kshmaamala. In conjunction with the milk from milk-trees these barks produce cloth which is flawless, strong, and soft.

For the two valkalas, according to "Agatatva-nirnaya" out of 5000 kinds of valkalas from shaarikaa to panchamukhee, the two named simhikaa and panchaanga are said to be excellent for producing the milk-cloth required for vimaanas.

The composition of the cloth is as follows:

Dudgdhapranaalika milk 8 parts, 10 parts of the milk juice of the patavriksha, 7 parts of payodaree or cocoanut milk, 18 parts of the milk of the 5 vata or ficus trees, and 12 parts of virancha tree.

The ambikaa-shatka composition is 10 parts of godaa-kanda, 17 parts of gum from kurangaka, 15 parts of aandolikaa viyatsaara, 12 parts lavika, 20 parts of prishatka, and 15 parts of kshmaamala.

The two jute cloth proportions are given in "Shana-nirnaya chandrikaa," as 28 parts of simhikaa jute, and 18 parts of panchaangavalkala jute.

These proportions of 5 ksheera or milk, 6 ambika or barks, and 2 valkalas or jutes, should be mixed together and unified, and boiled in paakaadhaana yantra and churned a number of times, and processing with acids 12 times, should be filled in pata-garbha kriya or cloth-making yantra, and milk-cloth of excellent quality obtained. The parivesha kriyaa-tube made out of this cloth will, by manipulation of the concerned switch, expel smoke from the vimaana, and by quick advancing and reverse revolutions of the wheel will spread the smoke all round so as to envelope the vimaana by means of the smoke-screen.

The Kiranaakarsha-Naala:

16 parts of the 305th variety of glass, 5 parts of kaancholikaabharana, 6 parts of nagakesara or merua ferrea,--aletris hyacinthoides, 4 parts of

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couries, sunflower, and Indian spikenard, 8 parts of pure borax, iron dross, onion juice, cuscus grass powder, ruby glass, the three varieties of salt-petre, sand, essence of suranjikaa, viranchi flour, essence of black-mica, essence of bael fruit, and juice of flower buds, these twelve ingredients, in the proportion of 27, 5, 7, 3, 8, 7, 3, 11, 8, and 12, are to be filled in the frog-shaped crucible, and placed in the frog-shaped furnace, and melted with 300 degrees of heat with the help of two-winged bellows. The resulting liquid is to be poured into the darpana yantra or glass-making machine, so as to produce the kiranaakarshana or rays-attracting yantra.

The tube made of this glass should be fixed at the top of the concerned yantra.

Next- the pratibimba-arka-kiranaakarshana naala, or tube for attracting the reflection of the solar says:

According to "Naalikaa-nirnaya," the essence of squash gourd, juice of momardica, 2 parts, of the salt of the two wheeled root vegetable, 3 parts of salt of simhamoola, 122nd type of glass, essence of white mica, jelly stone, borax, root of Bengal-madder, thorn at the root of bamboo, lead, mercury, these 15 ingredients are to be mixed in the proportion of 5, 12, 4, 3, 7, 3, 11, 4, 9, 12, 20, 18, 12, 5, 20. The mixture should be filled in the crucible known as samavargika, and heated in the furnace of the same name, and heated to the degree of 315, with the aid of bellows called suraghaa. The resulting liquid should be poured into the mirror--making machine. The resulting product will be a fine bimbaarka-kiranaadarsha, or reflected solar ray attracting mirror. This should be fixed in the central portion of the vimaana and in the 10th kendra, with five circled screws.

Now we deal with the crest crystal of the vimaana. The crest-crystals are of 103 kinds. They are named in "Mani-kalpa-pradeepika" as belonging to the 12th class of 32 groups of crystals. Their names are shankara, shaantaka, kharva, bhaaskara, Mandana, kalaantaka, deeptaka, nandaka, chakrakantha, panchanetra, Rajamukha, Raakaasya, kaalabhyrava, chintamani, koushika, chitraka, bhaskara, uduraaja, viraaja, kalpaka, kaamikodbhava, panchasheershna, paarvanika, panchaaksha, paaribhadraka, isheeka, kaashabhrit, kaala, kanjaasya, kowtika, kalaakara, kaarmika, vishaghna, panchapaavaka, symhikeya, roudramukha, manjeera, dimbhika, pingala, karnika,

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krodha, kravyaada, kaala-kowlika, vinaayaka, vishwamukha, paavakaasya, kapaalaka, vijaya, viplava, praanajanghika, kaarmukha, prithu, shinjeera, shibika, chanda, jambaala, kutilormika, jrimbhaka, shaakamitra, vishalya, kanka-gowrabha, suragha, suryamitra, shashaka, shaakala, shaktyaakara, shaambhavika, shibika, shuka, bherunda, mundaka, kaarshnya, puruhoota, puranjaya, jambaalika, sharngika, jambeera, ghanavarshmaka, chanchvaaka, chaapaka, ananga, pishanga, vaarshika. Raajaraaja, naagamukha, sudhaakara, vibhakara, trinetra, bhoorjaka, kumuda, koorma, kaarmuka, kapila, granthika, paashadhara, damaruga, ravi, munjaka, bhadraka.

These are the 103 crystals suitable for being fixed as crest-jewels of the vimaana. One of them is to be fitted to the central pinnacle at the top of the vimaana, and the wires from the electric dynamo should be connected to it, so that it might be supplied with power. On the upper side should be attached wires for collecting solar rays, so that the two forces might act in combination.

The switch-gear for connecting the vimaana with the solar energy is explained in "Brihath-kaandika." Sandhaana-keelakaas are of 25 kinds. Their names are pinjuleeka, keeranaka, dimbhaka, paarvateeyaka, kachchapa, gaaruda, uddanda, shaktipa, govidaaraka, pavanaasya, panchavaktra, vajraka, kankana, ahirbudhnya, kundalika, naakula, oornanaabhika, trimukha, saptasheershanya, panchaavartha, paraavatha, aavarta, naabhika, oordhvaasya, shilaavarta.

Amongst these the 9th, govidaaraka, is best suited to connect the vimaana with the solar beams for safe navigation. This is Pariveshakriyaayantra.

Next Angopasamhaara yantra:

During the passage of sun and other planets in the 12 houses of the zodiac, owing to the varying speeds of their progressive and retrogressive motions, conflicting forces are generated in the zodiacal regions, and their collisions will let loose floods of fierce forces which will reduce to ashes the parts of the plane which get involved with them. The pilot should get warned by the ushna-pramaapaka yantra, or heat-measuring instrument, and quickly fold the concerned parts and ensure their safety.

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It is described in "Yantrasarvasva" as follows:

Purifying the metal sumrileeka mixed with manjeera, a pedestal should be cast, 12 feet long, 18 inches thick, and shaped as a square or circle. Then mixing the magnetic stone and dimbika, after purifying them with acids, cast a pole 3 feet thick and 30 feet tall, with springs, as in an umbrella, at the foot, in the middle and at the upper end, and fix it in the centre of the pedestal. Rods made of mixed metal like umbrella rods, provided with 5 springs, should connect the springs in the pole with the several limb mechanisms of the vimaana. Two revolving wheel springs with two tubes with 3 faces and 3 wheeled springs should be fixed at the bottom of the pole, near the spring. Above there should be fixed an oiling tube which will keep all the springs well-oiled. When a particular limb of the plane has to be contracted the spring at the foot of the pole should be turned so as to induce the spring of the part to operate so as to contract or open up the part as need be so that the danger to the part will be prevented. By the operation of the angopasamhaara yantra, any part of the plane can be folded up to avoid danger and opened out subsequently.

Vistritaasyaa kriyaa yantra or wide-opening mechanism:

When the various powers, subterranean, eight cardinal points, earth, cloud, electricity, and oceanic, consemble in padma-mukha, a power called vishambharee is generated. It breaks through the earth, emitting great heat, mounts with a 300 linka speed to the upper sky regions, and reaching the aerial routes, envelopes the vimaana, and affects the personnel inside causing grave physical disabilities, and paralysing the brain. For the purpose of curbing it and nullifying it, the vistritaasyakriyaa yantra is to be installed in the vimaana.

According to "Yantrasarvasva," a foot-plate, of an arm's length, and 22 inches thick, and round-shaped, is to be made of the wood of the sacred peepul tree. A pole of an arm's thickness, and 32 inches high, is to be fixed in the middle of it. Reversible wheeled double-switches should be fixed along its height, connecting each of the sectional mechanisms in the vimaana, through tubes reaching to the bhastrikaa naala or bellows tube attached to the mechanisms. At the foot of the pole three revolving wheels, and at its back the contracting switches, have to be fixed

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First peetha or footplate, then pillar, then revolving springs, jointure tubes, two-wheeled keelakas, two-winged bellows, three wheel moving mechanism, contracting mechanism, are eight constituent parts of this machine.

First the triple wheeled mechanism should be switched on. That will set the double wheels in motion. That will make all the springs attached to the pillar begin to operate. The two winged bellows attached to the double-wheels will open up. Wind will rush out and force through all the sandhi-naalas or jointure tubes. That will set the bellows in the central operating; thereby the bellows of the sectional mechanisms will come into play, and air will flow out in a flood, and taking hold of the vishambharaa shakti expel it to the aerial regions where it will get lost. Thus the personnel inside the vimaana will be saved from disabilities and restored to normalcy.

Vyroopya mirror: Says "Yantrasarvasva",

When enemy planes come intent on destroying the vimaana, the vyroopya mirror is intended to frustrate them. Its parts are, peetha or stand, central switch-gear, electric pole, smoke tube, betel-nut oil, triple-wheeled spring, three satchels, smoke light, and contraction tube.

The peetha or seat should be 2 feet wide and 2 feet tall, and circular, and made of bael tree wood. 12 centres are to be marked therein. At each centre revolving joints should be fixed. Jyotistambha or electric pole, 24 inches thick and 24 inches tall and made of vyroopya darpana glass, is to be fixed in the centre. In front of it the electric machine should be fixed in the 2nd kendra. In the 3rd kendra should be fixed the turning smoke tubes with winding wires. The oil vessel should be fixed in the 5th kendra. The 3 satchels, with 3 mouths, one foot high and made of milk-leather should be fixed in the 6th 7th, 8th and 9th kendras, up to the smoke tube. In the tenth kendra should be fixed the smoke-extinguishing tube mechanism, and the light-extinguishing tube in the eleventh kendra. The winding wire tube should be fixed in the 12th kendra.

The operation of the mechanism is as follows:

Drawing the electrical energy from the dynamo, it must be applied to the triple-wheeled mechanism. That will be set in motion. The wires

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proceeding from there will convey the power to all the other mechanisms and set them in motion. Kendras 3, 4, and 5, will become active. When kendra, 9 is switched on the koshas attached thereto will become active. From the 5th kendra the current should be passed to the oil vessel. The oil will then convert itself into poisonous .gas. The gas should be filled in the 3 satchels and the 3 tubes. The fumes from two of the tubes should then be discharged towards the enemy planes. They will encircle the enemy planes and envelope them with a smoke-screen. Then the betelnut oil should be lighted, and fluxed in the jyoti stamhha or light-pillar. The light within the pillar will suffuse it with red glow like a china rose; and pervade the sky. Then the electric glow should be applied to that glow. The resulting glow will be multi-coloured like a rain-bow, with violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. Then the poison-fumes from the 3rd tube should be drawn through the air tube, and let into the multicolour-glowing light-pillar. The fume will burst into light, and then should be passed through tube into the vyroopya-darpana. The light glow will pervade the mirror and attain 3000 degree intensity, causing a blinding glare and paralising the enemy. Then the gas in the three satchels should be projected with 25 linka speed towards the smoke screen enveloping the enemy. Then the smoke from the tubes should be projected with 28 linka speed into that screen. Then the smoke filled glow will flood over the enemy personnel and affect their body joints, organs, mind, vision, and induce inertness, and make them all fall down senseless. Then the pilot could change his air-route and proceed forward safely.

Then Padmachakra mukha yantra:

According to "Yantra sarvasva," its parts are, peetha or pedestal, pillar, tubular pole, electric wiring, glass lotus petals, lotus formation process, places where the lotuses are to be located, wind inhaling and leather-bellows mechanism, contracting and expanding switches, triple-wheel fixing arrangement, air flow outlets, folding up mechanism. These are the 12 parts of the padmachakra mukha yantra.

The peetha or seat should be made of the wood of pippala or the holy fig tree, 8 feet and 3 feet high, and square or circular. Mark 12 fixing centres on it. From the central pillar draw lines towards the 12 spots. The central pole, two tubular posts on either side of it, electric wire in eastern centre,

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lotus petals in the north, formation of lotus in the northern and southern centres, fixing of the lotuses from the north-east to the south-east corner, to the east air-filling bellows. In the north west corner the contracting switch, and the expansion switch in the south-west corner, triple-wheel revolving mechanism on the eastern side, air flow outlets underneath each lotus. To its south, the contraction switch.

These are the 12 parts to be fixed in the 12 centres. The production of the parts is as follows:

The central pivot should be made of abhra-mrid-darpana, or mica-sand glass. According to "Darpana-prakarana"--

5 parts of rambhasatva (plantain stem?), 8 of manjoosha (madder root?), 5 parts of kaanta (ayaskaanta? sooryakaanta?), 8 parts of kravyaada (jataamaamsi), 3 parts of aadhaka essence, 7 parts of tortoise shell essence, 18 of bhalyatvak, 3 essence of kudmala or flower buds, 8 of bamboo salt, 3 of hooves, 28 parts of shoonya-mrid or mica ash, 4 of trivikrama kshaara, 2 of conch, 5 of mercury, 8 of salts, 1 of creepers, 3 of silver, 3 of eye-ointment, these 18 ingredients, purified, filled in crucible, placed in varaatakunda furnace and boiled to 200 degrees, and slowly filled in darpana yantra, will yield an excellent abhra-mrid darpana.

Two tubular poles of the size of an arm, made of this glass, should be placed on either side of the pivot. From the central pole electrical wiring should be connected to the 12 centres. In the centre of the switch tubes should be placed the lotus petals, and 150 finely made glass lotus petals should be spread on the northern side electric wires.

The petals are to be made, according to Lalla, by mixing 15 parts of the mica glass, with 4 parts of sourika salt, duly mixed and finely powdered and melted in pattikaa machine, when like onion-skin layers, petals will take shape. Then the wires attached to the petals should be brought together from the several centres, and attached to the lotus forming mechanism. By turning the concerned wheel the petals will move towards the centre and form a lotus. Each petal will then become a tube, and by their juggling each

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tube will form 2 petals. The air-attracting mechanism should be placed in front and set to work. With a shrieking noise the air will be sucked in by each tube and the petals will shoot the air far into the outer air.

It is said in "sandhaana-patala--"

The scattering of a blizzard which may obstruct the progress of the vimaana is only possible by means of the padma-sandhaana and not otherwise. Therefore the spots where the lotuses are to be inserted are now indicated. On the eastern side from the north east to the south east the lotuses are to be erected in seven places in close order. Beneath the seven lotuses should be fixed seven leathern bellows capable of deep draughts of air. On the north west corner should be fixed the double-wheeled contracting mechanism.

According to "Kriyaa saara," by turning the main wheel in right motion, and the upper wheel in reverse motion at full speed, the yantra will suffer contraction. This machine is composed of 6 wheels spread out, 5 naalaas or tubes, 12 wires and 12 openings, and 12 keys which will cause contraction of the 12 parts, with widened mouth at the upper and lower parts, and provided with 2 revolving keys. By placing such a contracting machine in the north-west corner, the machine could be contracted when desired.

Now we shall deal with the expanding mechanism. It is round like a water pot, with 12 wheels and mouths, having 12 tubes with rods inside with 12 revolving springs for ascending motion, and with a central spring for filling with air. With such a mechanism the yantra can be made to stretch its parts. This should be fixed in the south west corner.

Then at the eastern face the triple-wheeled revolving spring, called "bhraamanee-keelaka", should be fixed.

It has 3 ivory wheels, consists of 3 poles, wooden top shaped like shimshumaara, with wheels with spring on top. By its operation the several parts of the yantra are set in motion, and by the operation of the concerned springs, the yantra will expand. Therefore the 3 wheeled bhraamanee mechanism should be properly fixed at the eastern kendra with 5 bolts.

Underneath the lotuses air flow routes should be provided. There should be openings 12 inches wide, 2 inches high, be leather-covered, made

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of pippala wood, with 7 tubes for the flow of wind. Seven such tubes should be fixed beneath the seven lotuses, and provided with keys.

In the southern centre the contracting mechanism or upasamhaara keela, with 12 outlets, should be fixed.

Owing to the seasonal changes forces will generate in the joints of the outer space, and combining with the oceanic forces will reach the realm of air and cause a commotion which will spread out with fierce force into the farthest air pockets, and let loose typhoons which reach the vimaana, and produce a dusty excrescence which will induce chicken-pox-like skin eruptions on the pilots and other occupants, and also break up the vimaana. In order to suck up that foul wind-flow, and expel it out of the vimaana, the padma-patra-mukha yantra is prescribed.

Next Kuntinee-shakti-yantra:

Now we shall deal with kuntinee-shakti yantra. In mid-summer, out of the myriad heat rays of the sun, by the union of the 3, 5, and 10th class of rays, a fierce force of blazing heat named kulakaa is generated.

It is said in "Ritukalpa",

From the solar heat generative source 3 Mahaakshoni and 21 crores 500 lakhs 16 thousand and nineteen heat rays emanate. They are classified into 5 crores 8 thousand and 107 groups in Vaalmeeki ganita. Each group is divisible into 100 sub-groups. Of these when the rays of sub-groups 3, 5, 10 from the second group get mixed up in the heart of summer, a force called Kulakaa with fiery intensity is generated; and when it moves into the path of the flying vimaana, the plane will be reduced to ashes. To protect against that the kuntinee-shakti yantra should be installed in the neck portion of the vimaana.

Sage Narayana also says:

Amongst the divisions of the heat rays of the summer sun, the second group has 85000 rays. Out of them those numbered 8, 3, and 10 are specially intense, and they attract the pramlochana shakti from koorma portion of the universe, and produce a fierce heat-wave called kulikaa. If a vimaana happens

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to encounter it in its course, it will be burnt to ashes. To safeguard against that the kuntinee-shakti yantra should be installed in the neck section of the vimaana.

Lallaachaarya also confirms:

Out of the many groups of the heat-rays of summer, numbers 3, 5, and 10 in the 32nd division of the 2nd group of rays' tend to contact the pramlochana shakti in koorma and produce a fierce force called kulakaa which will destroy the vimaana. The erection of the kuntinee-shakti yantra in the vimaana will prevent it from such destruction.

According to "Yantra Sarvasva",

Among the constituent yantras of the vimaana, the kuntinee-shakti yantra is required to protect it from the combustible heat waves known as kulikaa in summer. Its parts are ground-plate, central switch-board, acid vessel cloth, with folds, chakradanti naala, milk cloth, tube covering switches, revolving wheel equipped with electric wiring, and contracting mechanism.

The peetha or ground-plate should be 3 feet wide and ? foot high, and round like a drinking bowl, seven kendras or centres commencing from the eastern side, turning switches in the seven centres, the acid vessel in the central kendra.

"Kriyaasaara" Says:

For capturing kulikaa the oil from gunja or the seeds of the shrub abrus and tobacco leaves, and mercury and shanaka crystal are recommended for use. The oils or acids of the seeds and tobacco leaves are to be filled in goblet like cup made of glass made of naaga, crownchika, and sowrambha metal, add purified mercury, and fix in the central kendra. Then apply the solar rays to the vessel. By the action of the rays on the acids the crystal in the vessel will become charged with a cold frigid force called krownchinee. Then when the kulikaa force enters the vessel with its fierce heat, it will be sucked in by the cold-storage crystal.

In the left kendra the cloth with folds should be fixed. Says "Patakalpa.--"

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In order to confine in the crystal the fierce heat of kulikaa it should be wrapped in the folds of a cloth of fine and strong texture made of spikenard and jute yarn, with 5 folds and 3 openings. From the openings 3 glass tubes should be projected with downward bends into 3 wide mouthed vessels. To the north--east must be fixed the chakradanti naala for attracting the kulikaa force. Snake-skin, gum of srini, woollen yarn, soft grass, should be boiled together and lac-coloured cloth-like glass prepared, and purified with sundikaa wood oil. It should he rolled in coils just as a snake circles up in coils and sleeps. The tiny glass tubes should be attached at the bottom of the chakradanti as directed.

Then ksheeree-pata naala, or milk-cloth tube is to be fixed. Made of milk-cloth with wide-opening, strong, soft, a tube should he inserted in the mouth of the chakradanti, and its end should be made to reach the hole in the peetha. Through that the kulikaa force makes its exit. After placing ksheeree pata naala like this with key, the electric wire connected central operating switch should be placed in the west. And to the north-east of it the vistritaasya or opening out switch should be fixed.

Says "Kriyaasaara":

It should have two satchels, two openings, two right-revolving and reverse-revolving wheels. In the eastern opening should be fixed the 2 right-revolving wheels. And in the northern mouth should be fixed the 2 reverse motion wheels. And as in an umbrella, sticks connecting all the parts with the centre, for the purpose of expansion and contraction by turning a switch. By operating the switch in the eastern opening all parts will open out or expand. By operation of the northern switch all parts will close up. This is the upasamhaara keelakaa.

Having enumerated the parts of the yantra, their operation is now given. First the electric switch. By putting it on, the Bhraamanee chakra or pivotal wheel will revolve setting in motion individual parts as and when desired by turning their respective switches. Then electric current should be passed to the acid containing the crystal. Solar rays also should then be passed into it. Thereby, in the acid there will be generated a female shakti of 5 nyankas called sowlikaa. Similarly in the crystal there will be generated a male shakti of 8 nyankas called chulikaa. By operation of the electric

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current the two shaktis will get unified and produce an extremely cold shakti called "crownchinee," capable of attracting the kulikaa. That crownchinee force should be projected through naala or tube towards the kulikaa, like imbedding a gunja pea in a lump of lac. Thereby the crownchinee will drag the kulikaa inside the yantra through the tube and drop it into the acid vessel where it will be imbibed by the crystal.

Then the patormikaa key should be turned, whereby the patormikaa will become wide open preventing any air from entering the crystal by covering it completely. Then the chakradanti key should be turned slowly, so that its mouth opens out and sucks the hot kulikaa from the crystal, and stores it inside itself. Then the key of the sookshmaadarsa naala, fine mirror tubes, should be operated. The kulikaa in chakradanti will emerge through the 3 tubes. Then the vistritaasya key should be operated quickly so that all the parts will open out, and the kulikaa shakti will get out and disappear, and the danger to the pilot will have passed. Then by operating the upasamhaara keelaka, the expanded parts will close up and the yantra will return to normalcy.

Now we shall deal with Pushpinee yantra. When the pilot has to travel during spring and summer months, the pushpinee yantra is intended to provide him with necessary comforts.

According to "Khetavilaasa":

In spring a force called sowrikaa emanates from the south-east. And in summer a force called panchashikhaa arises in the north-west and is intensified by the sun's rays. Panchashikhaa contains two kinds of poisons. Sowrikaa having fire and moon contents is cold and hot, cold internally, and hot externally. It generates warmth in all creations, making the human kind perspire, and the trees and vegetation bring out their milk and gums. Thereby their bodies are relieved of harmful materials likely to lead to diseases.

By its cold effect and attracting the spring effect from the solar rays, it permeates all things, and brings out shoots, tendrils, flowers and a glow in all trees and creepers. Similarly it effects the 7 physiological components of the human body and increases their vigour, strength, growth, and glow.

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Panchashikhaa shakti or force effects movable and immovable life adversely by its stultifying influence, shrinks and dries up the growth process of both vegetable and animal life and causes deterioration. To counteract this harmful effect of the season on the personnel of the vimaana, the pushpinee yantra is commended as one of the constituents of the aeroplane.

Its parts are, the base, the cold processing mirror, keelaka or key, cold generating crystal, acid vessel, electric wheel with 100 spokes.

The sunda-mud made glass is prepared, according to "Paarthiva-paaka Kalpa" as follows. Take salt, shinjeera, bone, and betel-nut salt, durona, kuruvinda grass (cyperus rotundus), gum, sowraashtra mud, virinchi vatika or banyan bark, silk cotton tree bark, and coir salt, these ingredients are to be taken in the proportion of 5, 12, 2, 3, 8, 3, 30, and 6, purified, filled in the crucible, and placed in the tortoise shaped furnace, boiled 32 times in 100 degree heat with the help of two faced bellows, and the resulting fluid poured into the cooling yantra. A pure and fine sunda-mud-glass will be formed.

With the glass thus produced by boiling 32 times, a base is to be formed 12 inches wide, 3 inches high, four-square or circular. From the centre of it 4 kendras or centres are to be marked. In the centre an arm-sized pivot made of the said glass should be fixed. On top of it is to be fixed the cold-processing mirror key. At its centre should be fixed the cold producing crystal. At the eastern centre should be placed the acid vessel.

Dravapaatra or acid vessel is described in "Kriyaasaara." It should be 12 inches wide and 12 inches high, shaped like a tumbler, circular, and hard like a cocoanut shell, and be made of the sheeta-ranjikaa glass.

The glass is described in "Darpana Prakarana". Shasha-piththa, udupiththa, borax, kutmala, jyotsnaa saara, rasonta kanda flour, kudupa-salt, mica salt, shoundeera jangha shalya flour, vaatohara, white niryaasa earth salt, and uragha.

These 12 ingredients should be taken in the proportion of 5, 3, 5, 1, 10, 10, 11, 8, 7, 2, 20, and 6, and after properly purifying them, fill them in lotus-shaped crucible, and placing it in the lotus shaped furnace filled with

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burning charcoal, and with the aid of the five-mouthed bellows blow the heat to 323 degrees temperature, and pour the liquid into the yantra. The resulting glass is called sheeta-ranjikaadarsa or cold-receptacle glass.

Cold-producing crystal is described in "Maniprakarana": 5 parts of couries and manjula powder, 4 parts udumbara salt, 3 of rubhna, 8 parts of varchulaka, 7 of sheeta ranjikaadarsha, 3 of vatu, 28 of shaalmali, 3 of salts, 7 of mercury, 8 of white mica, 8 of karkataanghri salt, 5 of chowlika satva, 15 of niryaasa earth, 25 of sampaathi bird kneebone--

These 14 ingredients, in the named proportions are to be purified and filled in mritkundala-moosha or earthen crucible, and placed in kulakundika furnace, and with the aid of tryambaka bellows blown into 300 degree temperature. Fill the boiled liquid into the mani-prasoothika, or crystal forming yantra. The crystal produced will be pure, hard, and intensely cold.

In front of it should be fixed .the electric panka wheel, with 100 spokes and electric wiring, and purified by 3 acids.

As per "Kriyaasaara," 12 parts of copper, 3 of collyrium, 8 of zinc, should be mixed and melted with 100 degree heat. It will become pure like gold, yellow, fine, soft, and strong. It is called pancha-loha or five-in-one metal by those who know. 100 leaves like those of lotus should be formed out of them. Then 3 navels, three navel keys, and 3 wires, and a sounding keelaka or key, or switch, or wheel.

First the navel wheels with hinged rods should be fixed so that the 100 petals will he made to revolve with due speed on the four sides of the wheel. Similarly by the side of the wheel in front of it, another 100 petals should be properly fixed for revolving in reverse direction. And electric wires should be fixed on both sides of the centre of the western wheel, for operating the 100 spoked electric panka or fan. Then the vessel should be filled with the cold generating acid. And encircling the cold-generating mani or crystal, it should be placed in another vessel in the centre. And copper wiring enclosed in milk-cloth should be attached to the wire in the acid vessel. Two wires from there with switches should be connected with the cold ranjikaa glass or mirror in right-turning fashion. Then current should be switched into the electric wiring in the crystal and acid. Then by the contact of the electric current the forces within the crystal and the acid will get active and their

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combined cooling and comforting quality will enter the cold ranjanikaa mirror and concentrate in it. On operating the switch attached to it, the cold effect will spread out all over the interior of the vimaana, and overcoming the scorching seasonal effect, make it comfortable and pleasant for the pilot, and restore his efficiency. Similarly the 100 spoked panka (fan?) should be switched on, when a breeze will be generated and air-condition the atmosphere of the pilots. Thus by the use of the crystal, acid, and panka, a state of pleasant comfort will be induced, and vigour, exhilaration, and competence will be injected into all the limbs of the body. Therefore this Pushpinee yantra should be installed in the southern section of the vimaana.

Next Pinjula Aadarsha or Pinjulaa Mirror:

By the collision of two winds giving rise to a whirlwind, and the fierce solar ray dashing against it, a lightning bolt erupts and strikes the unwary vimaana. To protect against such an event, the pinjula mirror is to be installed. An eight petalled lotus is to be made of the pinjula glass. Where the petals join, a circular dandaakaara should be made. At the back two hinged bolts should be fixed. They should be wound round by wires from the cold mirror. The back should be covered with a coir-made cloth covering. It should be fixed in the southern side of the vimaana, at an arm's height, facing the sun. The lightning will be absorbed by the projecting rods coiled with wires from the cold aadarsha mirror, and no evil effect will occur, and the pilot can proceed in safety.

And Naalapanchaka or Five tubes:

If the smoke from the kitchen over of the vimaana spreads, it will cause discomfort for people inside. Therefore the five tubes or pipes should be inserted for the smoke to go out and the air become clear. The pipes are to be manufactured as follows. Magnetic iron, pinjula mica, ghontaara metal, dhoomapaasya metal, and tortoise shell, are to be taken in the proportion of 1, 7, 5, 5, 8, purified, filled in crucible, and melted with 100 degree heat, and when ultimately cooled, a fine metal called vaataayanee metal, or window metal will result shining like gold.

With that metal 5 tubular outlets, 12 inches in diameter and 12 inches in length, should be fashioned. At one end of each of the tubes should be fixed

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a smoke-absorbing crystal. The tubes should be inserted in the 4 sides of the vimaana, forming outlets. One tube should be fixed at the ceiling. The dhoomapa crystals will attract the smoke and pass it to the outside, and clear the vimaana of its discomfort. Hence the necessity for the naalapanchaka, or five tubes.

Then Guhaa-garbha aadarsha yantra, or hidden mine discovering mechanism:

According to "Yantra Sarvasva" enemies would have placed mines and bombs underground for the destruction of the vimaana, unless they are discovered and de-fused in time there would be danger. Therefore the mine-finder yantra has to be installed in the vimaana.

Says kriyaasaara, out of the 72nd type of glass, make a triangular, a circular, and a quadrangular shaped glass mirrors. These are to be fixed as follows with bolts made of pancha-dhaaraa metal in a frame made of the wood of the anjishtha tree. The circular mirror should be fixed at the bottom facing downwards. The quadrangular mirror should be fixed facing upwards. The triangular mirror should be fixed to the west of these two, with a panchamukha keelee or 5 faced hinge. From the main pivot of the quadrangular mirror to the foot of the bolt at the south-east corner of the yantra, wires made of copper, tiles, and panchaasya metal should be drawn and connect them, and then the wire ends and chumbaka crystal should be placed in the mercuric-sulphur acid vessel. Four other wires should be made to circle the triangular mirror, pass through the mirror facing upwards, and fixed to the centre of the down-ward facing mirror. Then solar rays should be let in from the western side. A screen cloth coated with mirror-like gum should be placed opposite to the triangular mirror. Then the solar rays and electric current should be passed into the acid vessel containing the crystal. When the electrified rays from the crystal are passed on to the downward facing mirror, they will explore the ground over which the vimaana is to pass, and discover mines and bombs like mahagola and agni-garbha, which may have been inserted there and reflect their complete picture in the crystal in the acid vessel. The picture will then be projected to the screen opposite in clear detail, and by washing with chemicals present a perfect photograph of the buried mines and bombs, which could then be destroyed by due safety measures. Therefore the guhaa-garbha aadarsha yantra or mine-discovering yantra is essential for a vimaana.

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[paragraph continues] Its parts are as follows:

First the 72nd type of mirror, known as suranjitaadarsha. "Darpana Prakarana" says:

Madder-root, live coal, ox-gall, snake-gourd, mercury, karanja or galedupia arborea, copper, 3 kinds of sharkara (sugar or sand?), borax, sulphur, chaaru or silk-cotton bark, lac, kuranga, rouhinee, iron-rust, panchaanana, liquid amber, Shiva or brionia laciniosa, vishwa, mica, paarvanija, vydoorya gem stone, in the proportion of 11, 27, 5, 7, 7, 3, 7, 5, 20, 3, 7, 3, 1, 32, 30, 38, 8, 7, 3, 9, 30, duly pulverised and filling in a beaked crucible, placed in a vaaraaha furnace, and heated to the 100th degree with the aid of the tortoise-shaped bellows. When the finely boiled liquid is poured in the cooling yantra, suranjika glass of exquisite quality will result, out of which three mirrors have to be fashioned for the guhaa-garbha-aadarsha yantra.

Aanjishtha Tree

Kriyaasaara says, "Many kinds of trees are suitable for use in making yantras. Of them all the tree called aanjishtha is the finest." "The trees having 5 qualities are 87 in number. The best among them all is aanjishtha," says "Udbhijya tatva saaraayanee."

Agatatvalaharee also says, the five qualities such as the capacity to capture reflections, and others, are found inherent in the Aanjishtha (or madder root) tree. Therefore out of all woods the wood of that tree is most suitable for use in this yantra.

Pancha-dhaara-loha

In making yantras, pivots of various metals are being used. But for use in connection with the guhaa-garbha-aadarsha, or hidden mine discovering instrument, the shankus or pivots made of pancha-dhaaraa-loha or five alloy metal are the best.

Kshvinkaa, iron-pyrites, copper, indra, and ruruka, purified, powdered, and filled in mrugendra moosha crucible and boiled to 300 degree heat with beaked bellows, will yield a 5 alloy metal, strong and heavy.

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Paara-granthika acid for insertion of the crystal, is described in "Moolikaarka prakaashikaa." Mercury, bamboo salt, Indian spikenard joint, paarvanika or clerodendrum phlomides, svarna seeds or Indian labernum seeds? or yellow thistle seeds?, and ghatotkaja or American aloe, in equal quantities, should be filled in a big bellied earthen pot, heated to yield a golden hued shining liquid, which is very useful for capturing reflections.

Chumbaka crystal is the one most suited for use in capturing reflections of objects. It is manufactured as per "Manipradeepikaa," with the following ingredients. Magnet, sand, borax, ivory, shoundika or long pepper, mercury, paarvana or clerodend rum phlomoides, copper, vermillion, iron-pyrites, grudhnika, souri or marking nut, buffalo hoop, vishwakapaala, cleaned and powdered, and filled in karpala crucible and baked in a furnace with the aid of owl-nosed bellows to 100 degrees, will yield a fine image producing crystal.

Pigment for coating the screen so as to present a clear picture, is called "Roopaakarshana-niryaasa," or image reproducing niryaasa or varnish. Out of 360 such varnishes that is the best.

Says "Niryaasa kalpa":

Moonstone, crownchaka, bamboo rice, five milks from banyan, fig, keg etc., trees, magnet, udusaara, mercury, mica, pearl, earth from ant-hill, saarasvata oil, and nakha or nail? these 16 articles to be taken in equal parts, purified, should be ground for a period of 30 days in the juice of the peacock's egg, then mixed with bilva oil and boiled for four yaamaas or twelve hours until it becomes a perfect gum or varnish. Some call it reflector varnish. Some call it virinchi-varnish.

The varnish is to be evenly spread on the special cloth called patadarpana, so that it may present as on a cinematograph screen, the pictures reflecting the location of anti-aircraft mines discovered by the roopaakarshana yantra.

The production of Pata-darpana is described in "Darpana-prakarana":

Gum, cotton, pratolikaa, kuranga or pallatory root, maatanga or keg tree bark, cowries, kshoneeraka, gholikachaapa, granite sand, parotikaa, sea-foam, priyangava, ghanjhotikaa, sugar-cane, rukma or argemone mexicana,

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kesara or mesua ferraa gum, earthen salt, suvarchala, urugha, bydaara oil, muchukunda flour, sinjaanu, anchaalika, turmeric, kaarmuka or acacia catechu, these ingredients in the proportion of 100, 58, 25, 28, 4, 12, 5, 3, 1, 30, 10, 5, 8, 12, 3, 13, 22, 27, 28, 3, 24, 7, 3, 13, should be cleansed, powdered, filled in a vessel, and boiled in the furnace with 100 degree heat, and the unified fluid should be poured on a flat surface so as to form an even surfaced sheet. After drying, the photographic niryaasa varnish is to be used to coat this sheet, for use in the Guhaa-garbha aadarsha-yantra.

Thamo yantra or Darkness creating yantra:

Vimaanaas are liable to be attacked by enemies with poison fumes of Rouhinee or krakachaarimani rays. As a protection against it the thamo yantra has to be installed in the vimaana. Out of 132 types of thamo-yantras, the 62nd variety is said to be the best for safe-guarding against poison fume and ray attacks by the enemy.

Black lead, aanjanika (collyrium?), vajra-tunda are to be powdered and mixed in equal quantities, filled in fish-shaped crucible and placed in crow shaped furnace, heated to 100 degrees, and poured into the cooling receptacle will yield a fine, light, strong thamo-garbha-loha, or darkness impregnated alloy metal, useful for making Thamo-yantra.

The peetha or stand is to be 3 feet wide and ? foot high, square or round. In the centre of it is to be fixed the pivot. At its front should be placed the vessel of the acid of guggala or Indian dellium. To the west should be fixed the mirror for enhancing darkness, and in the east should be fixed the solar ray attracting tube. In the centre should be fixed the wire operating wheel, and to its south should be fixed the main operating wheel or switch.

Its working is as follows. On turning the wheel in the south east, the two faced mirror fixed to the tube will revolve and collect the solar rays. By operating the wheel in the north west, the acid in the vessel will begin functioning. By slightly moving the wheel in the south-east, the solar rays will enter the crystal in the acid vessel. By turning the wheel in the west, the darkness intensifying mirror will begin to function. By turning the central wheel the rays attracted by the mirror will reach the crystal and

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envelop it. Then the main wheel should be revolved with great speed, when the darkness will be produced enveloping the vimaana and making it invisible, and the efforts of the enemies to attack it with poison gas and rays will miss their target and become ineffective. This yantra should be placed in the north-west sector of the Vimaana Panchavaataskandha-Naala.

Iron rust, shaarana, copper, suvarchala salt, in equal parts, to be filled in mayookha crucible, placed in jumboo-mukha furnace, and using kaakamukha bellows boiled to 102 degrees and cast in the yantra, will yield a pure, light, soft, strong, nice cool metal known as vaatadhaarana loha.

4 tubes, each 2 yards long and 1 yard high, should be prepared. Like the circular opening in the top of the vimaana two openings on each and one at the bottom should be prepared. Each tube should be inserted in the said openings. Another tube 12 feet long and 3 feet high should be fixed on the western side in the opening at the top. To each tube should be attached bellows' mouth operated by wheels. By turning the wheels of the 5 tubes the 5 poisonous winds will be sucked in and passed into the tubes to make their exit, without causing harm to the plane.

Lohasarvasva says:

There are 13 air layers known as Vrishni and others. By the force of the Panktiraadhasa Kendra, they tend to jostle each other, and generate fierce forces which will be destructive to the unwary vimaana which may get involved in them. Therefore the Pancha-Vaata-Skandha-Naala Yantra is to be inserted in the back portion of the vimaana; to safeguard against evil consequences.

Roudree Darpana Mirror.

From the south-eastern side of the earth-sun axis solar rays touch the turbulent forces in the etherial regions, and burst into flames, and vimaanas which may be out on their course may be destroyed by the flames. To prevent such a happening the roudree-darpana yantra should be installed in the bottom of the vimaana.

Says "Yantrasarvasva", "At the time when spring passes into summer, the forces in the junctional regions of the sky, on contact by fierce solar

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rays, burst into tumultuous flames, and destroy all things that pass through, Therefore the roudree darpana should be fitted in the vimaana as a safe-guard against that."

According to "Darpana Prakarana," iron rust, magnet, veera iron, borax, panchaanana metal, mica, honey, red castor bark, banyan, suryavarchula or sweet-salt, gold, alika, shaarkara or benzoin tree bark, pancha tikta or 5 sours, snake gourd, and paaduka, are to be powdered, cleaned, and in equal quantities filled in padmaasya crucible, and placed in vishvodara furnace and heated to 200 degrees. The molten liquid poured into the mould will yield excellent flame-proof roudree-darpana glass.

With this roudree-darpana glass a plank of 16 feet in dimension should be prepared. A pivot 25 inches thick should be fixed at the centre of the plank. At the edge Of the pivot, two wheels should be fixed revolving with right motion and reverse motion for expanding and contracting. A wheel equipped with rods for spokes should be fixed, the spokes being 15 inches from each other. Sheets made of roudree glass, washed with linseed, drona or lucas aspera, liquid amber, and madder root oils should be fixed to the rods with hinges. Similarly crystals made of roudree-darpana glass, with 5 facets, cleaned with the oils should be fixed at the end of the rods. Between each rod 18 leaves like lotus leaves with revolving keys should be fixed. The instrument is to be shaped like an umbrella. The leaves should be fixed at the pivot top with 8 keys.

When the burning flames are imminent, the pilot should turn the expansion wheel vigorously, and the umbrella will open up and provide a shielding cover for the vimaana. The lotus petals, the crystals, and the enveloping cover will protect the vimaana from the threatened danger.

Next, the Vaata-skandhana-naala.

According to "Gati-nirnaya-adhyaaya"

In the Aavaha and other giant wind spheres there are 122 kinds of different motions of the wind. In the summer season the 79th kind of motion occurs mostly. When the vimaana travels in the 4th region of the sky, it tends to zig-zag owing to the wind currents, and cause hardship to pilots and other oc
     
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